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Ahmad Khan

Sayyid Ahmad Khan comes from the descendants of Husayn, grandson of the Prophet Muhammad through Fatimah and Ali, and he was born in Delhi in 1817 AD Grandmother of Syyaid Syyid Hadi Ahmad Khan was the princes palace at the time of Alamaghir II (1754-1759) and her childhood pen m mengenya traditional education in the knowledge of religion and learn Arabic and Persian languages ​​are learned. 

Sayyid Ahmad Khan Biography 
Sayyid Ahmad Khan comes from the descendants of Husayn, grandson of the Prophet Muhammad through Fatimah and Ali, and he was born in Delhi in 1817 AD Grandmother of Syyaid Syyid Hadi Ahmad Khan was the princes palace at the time of Alamaghir II (1754-1759) and her childhood pen m mengenya traditional education in the knowledge of religion and learn Arabic and Persian languages ​​are learned. He is a person who likes to read books in various fields of science and her early teens when he worked at the East India trade. Works well as a judge, but in 1846 he returned to his hometown Delhi.

In this city he spent his time and opportunities to study and hang out with figures - figures, religious leaders and also learn and see the relics - relics of the glory of Islam, such as the Nawab Ahmed Baksh, Nawab Mustafa Khan, Hakim Mahmud Khan, and Nawab Aminuddin. While in Delhi Sayyid Ahmad Khan started to compose his first which was Asar As - Sanadid. And in 1855 he moved (migrated) to Bijnore, in this place also he kept a book - a book critical of Islam in India. In 1857 a revolt and anarchy in the political akibatkan in Delhi which led to violence (anarchist) of the Indian population. When he saw the state of Indian society kususnya Delhi, he thought to leave India to Egypt, but he was unconscious and his heart terketuk Muslims must fight for India to memjadi forward, so he tried to prevent violence and conflict, as well as becoming the British rescuers from murder, until given the title Sir, but he refused the title that is given them. In 1861 she established the English school in Muradabad, and in 1878 he also founded a school Angio Mohammedan Oriental College (MAOC) in Aligarh yamg yamg is the work of the most historic and influential to advance the development and progress of Islam in India.

When the British set foot in India and the flag stick, then collapse treasury Eastern Empire (named after the founder Timurlenk Mongol sovereignty in the sixteenth century AD). That it is their goal was to undermine and aqeedah of Muslims so that they (Muslims) adopts the the UK. Another goal is to narrow the life of Muslims held a variety of pressure and coercion-coercion. Thus, the Muslims would not recognize the Islamic Aqeedah is true and will neglect their obligations. When the government wrongfully failed to take advantage of the way first, they use the second way. They began planning to eliminate Islam from India, because they are just afraid of the Muslims who lost their leader and their rights.

Then came a man named Sayyid Ahmad Khan (knighted in India) approached the British colonialists for profit. He began to walk to leave the religion (Islam) and a religion that is embraced by the British. He began writing a book in which he states that the Torah and the Gospel is never altered by human hands, to earn the rank of the hands of the invaders. British people do not believe him so he actually said that he was "a Christian". He realized that this humble effort in vain and he was not able to change the religion of Islam but a few. So he started the other way in his devotion to the British government: to divide the unity of Muslims. He revealed himself as a naturalist atheist and stated that there was nothing but nature (nature) and that this nature there is no God who created, He declared that all prophets were the naturalist, did not believe in a God who makes laws. The British government was happy with his efforts, and saw that the way it is best to destroy the hearts of the Muslims. They respect and uphold Ahmad Khan and helped him to establish a school in the name of the school Alighar "Muhammadiyin", as a trap to collect young men educated in mind Mu'min and Ahmad Khan.

Ahmad Khan also wrote a commentary of the Qur'an, which he meant a lot to change that fact. He published a magazine called Tahdzibul-Akhlaq of which only confuse the minds of the Muslims and dividing them and light the fire of hostility between Indian Muslims and others, especially the Ottoman empire. Frankly it removes all the existing religions, but in fact the religion of Islam, he invites people to return to "nature", arguing that European civilization will not go forward and will not have the knowledge, humility and strength is so high unless by removing religion and return to the real purpose of religion, which is investigating the nature (nature). That's his opinion.

System interpretation of the Qur'an Ahmad Khan is based on the basis of nature (nature), which opposes the existence of miracle and there are things out of the ordinary. Then he states that "prophecy" is a goal that can be obtained by mental exercises (Riyadloh Nafsiyah), the goal is natural and human, and humane way he was not remarkable. However, he acknowledges Muhammad as the closing minutes of the Divine.

When explaining the verse about the war, he weakens the obligation of jihad in the future. And clause relating to People of the Book, he interpreted that there is no distance between the Ahl-ul-Islam book and the ummah. He invited the cooperation between Muslims and Western people, he was invited to Religious Humanism (ie humanity advocated by all the celestial religions). In this concept there is no difference in the state, nation, religion, and understand. Thus Ahmad Khan has services in the fields of politics and education with the renewal of religious motivation. (Al Bahiy, M, Dr. 1986:4-8).

Sayyid Ahmad Khan, who was later condemned and labeled as infidels by the scholars' Makkah, he was not directly in the desperate fight for his opinion, even he did not respond. Meanwhile, according to a young Indian Muslim scholars, he was honored for having brilliant ideas to revive the Islamic Ummah India from the downturn.
 Sayyid Ahmad Khan argued that the increased status of Indian Muslims, can be realized only by working with the UK. English is the ruler who was in India and UAT k against power, it will not bring good to the Muslims of India. This will keep them back and eventually be far behind the Hindu society of India. Way to go on Muslims to acquire knowledge and the necessary technology was not working with the Hindus against the British but to improve and strengthen good relations with Britain. 

He tried to convince the British that the 1857 uprising, Muslims do not play a major role. For that he remove the pamphlets that contain explanations about the things that led to the outbreak of the 1857 rebellion. among the causes which he referred are the following:
A. British intervention in the matter of religion, such as Christian religious education is given to orphans in asylums are cared for by the British, the formation of Christian missionary schools, and the removal of religious education from universities.
2. No participation of the people of India, both Islam and Hinduism, the representative bodies of the people, things that lead to:
· The people of India do not know the purpose and intention of the UK, they regard the British came to merobah their religion to Christianity.
· The British government did not know the grievances of the people of India.
· The British government is trying to tie his friendship with the people of India, is the stability of the government depends on good relationships with people. Disrespect and disrespect for the people of India, led to a result that is not good.
On his efforts and the loyalty that he showed against England, Sayyid Ahmad Khan finally succeeded in merobah British view of Indian Muslims. And while it is recommended to not take a stand against, but the attitude of friends and friends with the British to establish good relations between the British and the Muslims. Muslims to be rescued from their decline, could have realized the days of his life.

Among the brilliant ideas are as follows:
A. Sayyid Ahmad Khan argued that the increased status of Indian Muslims, can be realized by simply working with the UK. English is the most powerful ruler in India, and against the power it does not bring good to the Muslims of India. This will keep them back and eventually be far behind the Hindu society of India. Besides the basic height and strength of the west, including the UK, is the science and modern technology. To be able to advance, Muslims must also master modern science and technology is. Way to go Muslims to acquire knowledge and modern technology it is not necessary in cooperation with the Hindus against the British but to improve and strengthen good relations with Britain. He tried to convince the British that the rebellion of 1857, Muslims do not play a major role. On his efforts and the loyalty that he showed against England. Sayyid Ahmad Khan finally succeeded in merobah Muslims view the United Kingdom to India. And in the meantime to encourage Muslims lest he take a stand against, but the attitude of friends and friends with the English. Cita his dream to live a good relationship between the British and the Muslims, that Islamic Ummah can thus help from kemunduranya, already can be embodied in his lifetime.

2. Sayyid Ahmad Khan's view that the Indian Muslims because they are not backed up with the times. Classical Islamic civilization has been lost and a new civilization arose in the west. This is the basis of a new civilization of science and technology. Modern science and technology is the result of human thought. Therefore, it was awarded a high sense of Sayyid Ahmad Khan. But as Muslims who believe kapada revelation, he argues that the power of reason is not unlimited. Because he believes in the power and freedom of mind, have a limit though, he believed in freedom and human freedom in deciding and doing the will of Nature, Sayyid Ahmad Khan's next, running and circulated in accordance with the laws of nature which God has prescribed it. Everything in nature happens according to the law of cause and effect. But it all depends on the form of a first cause (God). If something is broken with a first cause, then the form of something that will go away.

3. In line with the above ideas, he refuses dogmatic ideology did not even hesitate to attack this ideology. Sources of Islamic teachings in his opinion is only the Qur'an and Al Hadith. Opinion of scholars' in the past are not binding for the Islamic Ummah, and amongst their opinion there is no longer compatible with modern times. A similar opinion was to be abandoned. Human society is always changing and therefore the need to hold a new ijtihad to customize the implementation of Islamic teachings to the people who changed the atmosphere. In undertaking ijtihad, ijma 'and qiyas him not a source of Islamic teachings that are absolute. Hadith is not everything because there are traditions of receipt for deeds. Can he accept the hadith as a source only after a thorough research conducted on its authenticity.

4. Which became the basis for the system of marriage in Islam, in his opinion, monogamy is a system, and not the system of polygamy, as has been described by scholars ulama' 'dizaman it. Polygamy monogamy is the exception to the system. Polygamy is not recommended but allowed in certain cases. Law cutting off the hands of a thief is not a law that must be implemented, but only a maximum of laws imposed under certain circumstances. Besides, there is a law cutting off of hands for thieves in prison law. Slavery is mentioned in the Qur'an is only limited to the first days of the Islamic struggle. After the fall and surrender of the city of Mecca, slavery no longer allowed in Islam. The true purpose of prayer is to sense the presence of God, in other words prayer is needed for peace of soul and spiritual affairs. Understand that the purpose of prayer is asking something from God and that God granted that request, he refused. Most of the prayer, he explained, was never granted the Lord.

5. In political ideas, Sayyid Ahmad Khan, argued that the Islamic Ummah is one Ummah who can not form a state with a Hindu community. Muslims must have a separate state. United with the Hindu community in the State will make a low-Islamic minority progress, will disappear in the majority Hindu community of higher progress.
This is the key points of Sayyid Ahmad Khan thinking about reform in Islam. Dimajukannya ideas have much in common with the ideas of Muhammad Abduh in Egypt. Both leaders of this reform are equally high reward to the human mind, are equally embraced Qadariyah schools, both believe in the laws of nature created by God, equally opposed to imitation, and equally open the door of ijtihad is considered closed by the Islamic Ummah in general at a time when it is.

 The efforts achieved by Sayyid Ahmad Khan. 
As already mentioned above, the way for Indian Muslims to break away from the setback, and further progress, is to acquire modern science and Western technology. And that is the end of this mental attitude can achieve a less ummah believing in the power of reason, lack of trust in human freedom and lack of trust in human freedom and lack of confidence in the existence of natural law, must be changed first.
 Change of mental attitude that he try through their writings in the form of books and articles in magazines Tahzib Al Akhlaq. Businesses through education as well he did not forget, even in the end he poured into this field and focus your attention usahanya.Di 1876 he founded the English school in Muradabad.  In 1879 he founded the Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College School (MAOC) in Aligarh which is a historic and influential work in his goal to advance the Muslims of India. 

As a step to revive Islam, Sayyid Khan presents three steps that must be taken: (1) cooperate in the fields of politics, (2) takes the sciences of Western culture, (3) reinterpret Islam in the realm of thought. The idea to build a relationship with the UK and its refusal to get rid of the Muslims against the West began his stand for progress.

Sayyid Khan argues that the Koran is the only principle to understand Islam. This is it based on the words of Ibn Umar Khathab, "It is enough for us Allah's Book". With the development of science, to understand Al-Quran is not possible to rely on the Qur'an uses a contemporary interpretation. He argues that these verses are muhkamat rights or contain the basics of Aqeedah, while the verses mutasyabbihat receive more than one interpretation that is to follow the progress of human knowledge. Changes happen all the time, science and human experience increases. Therefore, to deal with these changes should change human understanding of the verses of mutasyabbihat. Because there may be other interpretations are more in line with the science of human nature today.

According to Ahmad Khan, only the Al-Quran is a principle in understanding religion, whereas the hadith which can be used as a backrest only hadiths which according to the texts and the spirit of the Quran, which according to human reason and experience and are not contrary to the nature of history . In fact, every hadith concerned with world problems specifically applies only to the conditions and circumstances at the time nubuwah Arab nation, and is not binding for all Muslims.

It seems that the most important points are denied Ahmad Khan is in accepting the hadith. He believes religious matters are fixed, while the matters of the world changing. Up here it can be concluded that according to Ahmad Khan, the hadiths are not accepted as a source of law after the era of prophecy. He was eventually doubted the feasibility of the opinions of jurists in advance to be applied in the present. Then the door of ijtihad is open to the whole problem. According to differences in the broad vision and freedom is the only way to advance people. One opinion is sufficiently strong responses from some quarters is that God has created and make the laws, but God will not intervene in the natural law. In terms of simply showing that it uses the value system of Western thought to understand and interpret the religion of the Koran .... sayyid ahmad khan

  • Al Bahiy, Muhammad, Dr. 1986. Modern Islamic Thought. Jakarta: Library Panjimas.
    Nasution, Aaron, Dr, Prof. 1990. Updates In Islamic Thought And History
    Movement. New York: Crescent Star.
    Anwar, Rosihon, Drs, M.Ag. Science kalam. For UIN, stai, PTAIS. London: Faithful Reader

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