The Riba - Aneka Ragam Makalah
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The Riba

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Riba is unlawful for a significant increase in the absence of property subject to real business transactions In this paper, the authors tried to solve the problem with the positioning of the Quran as the foundation footing by digging understanding and pengaharaman stages riba in the Quran through the causes of decline in verse which discusses usury, then usury compare with interst.

By: Turmudi: Nim 06 EKNI 1023

A. Preliminary 
In economic activity, since the first Muslim community until now frequently encountered or emerging issue that is usury. Deemed to be a problem because the normative usury is forbidden by religion and applied it mensengsarakan a fun party and other parties. Therefore, the Koran, the Muslim community should be positioned as the foundation footing to address and resolve the problem of usury. 

In this paper, the authors tried to solve the problem with the positioning of the Quran as the foundation footing by digging understanding and pengaharaman stages riba in the Quran through the causes of the decline paragraph that discusses the riba, usury and then comparing with interst.

B. Understanding Riba

Regarding the definition of usury, we encounter a variety of opinions, both from the jurists and scholars that in principle can be classified in two things: understanding the language and understanding riba riba in the term.

In the language comes from the root word riba RBW, ie increased or excessive, grow or develop. Those words mean is a particular advantage obtained a debtor from creditors, [1] and can also mean additional, that is addition to the principal property, be it little or much [2]

While the term, usury is the addition of the subject property without a real business transaction, [3] means that the presence of Islamic business transactions which are justified as buying and selling, mortgage, lease, or for the results of the project the additional property that is halal or away from usury. Thus the development of the property factor is the presence of people running and working on it is not by itself because the time factor alone.

C. Riba prohibition process and Asbabun Nuzulnya

Determination and application of Islamic law to his people carried out gradually, it is intended that the Muslims did not object to execute it, so does the prohibition of usury. He revealed in four stages, namely:

A. The first stage, the word of God in the letter of al Rum verse 39:

Verses revealed in Mecca on which there is no sign that dzahirnya show diharamkannya usury, but only God's wrath against usury was riba which stated that there was no reward from Allah at all. [4]

One thing to note that in paragraph above, denngan understanding riba zakat negated. Riba does not add to the sight of God but only adds to one's principal assets, while reducing the alms despite the excess of one's possessions when there are still those who struggle to make ends meet then zakat adding value to one's deeds and even the solution instead of lending money in the hope of picking up additional return on time. It was explained in the letter of al Rum verse 38.

2. The second stage, the word of God in the letter an Nisa 'verses 160-161

Paragraph above is derived in Medina and the lessons told by Alah told us about the behavior of the Jews who are prohibited from usury, but they break them and even justified. As a consequence they have the curse and wrath of God.

Prohibition in this subsection a new form of cues, not overtly Jewish causes is just the story and not an argument qath'i that usury is forbidden for Muslims. [5]

3. The third stage, the word of God in the letter of al Imran verse 130:

The above verse was revealed in Madinah and is expressly ban, but the prohibition (haraam) juz'i usury is new here (in part) and yet are kully (overall). Because illegitimate here is a kind of riba is usury the most heinous, meaning a form of usury which the debt can multiply that by the NII people berpiutang done in terms of the debtor in a state of need and necessity. [6]

According to a history that is, that verse is revealed regarding Saqif family that gave to the Children Mughirah debt, when it is time for payment, Bani Mughirah said: "We will increase your wealth and grant him / us a grace period for payment of debt". [7]

4. The fourth stage, the word of Allah in Surat al-Baqarah verse 275-280:

There are some things that are described in this paragraph, First, the transaction is not the same programs so usury. Second, trade is permissible while usury is forbidden, Thirdly, those who have heard the verse immediately stopped the ban on riba or usury leave without a return that has already done. [8]

The next verse explains that while emphasizing the usury laws, as noted in paragraph 276, 277 and 278 letters of al Baqarah:

From the above verse, usury was forbidden as a whole (kully) which at this stage of the Quran is no longer distinguish between usury that much or little. And this verse is the last verse the decline, which means that the Shari'ah is the last verse that is also contained in the letter of al-Baqarah verse 278. This verse is the last stage of the illicit nature of usury. [9]

Furthermore there is information concerning the rights of people who provide debt and how the attitude to be taken if the right person is threatened, as described in the letter of al Baqarah verse 279-280:

From the second paragraph above, the Quran states that the right person to give the debt, which is a principal debt, and if the person receiving the debt was having trouble paying then let that give debt relief that can give a tough time giving payment, but if the debtor is true really having trouble then the best way assume the debt as alms. [10]

D. Riba and Interest

That the prohibition of riba al Quran as we describe above can be understood wisdom behind pengharamannya, namely that the practice of usury in the socio-economic system is ruthless in which profits earned through the imposition of (deferred) interest rate which reflects the exploitative actions against those who are economically weak by force and cunning as well as the ultimate goal to be achieved from usury is immoral. [11]

Amoralnya cruel practice of usury and that it is very natural that the Code of the Law of Moses (Old Testament) prohibits the activity, as was also in Greece, where usury is called rokos, that is something that is born of an organic creature. Money says Aristotle, is an object that is not classified as organic, so the money could not have children. Furthermore, the philosopher says to those who ask for payment of the loan money the actions considered contrary to the laws of nature. The same is beraku for the Christian in the Bible where the Gospel (Luke VI: 35) are not allowed to take advantage of the lending of gold and other precious metals, ie, of all objects that could not have children.

But in the 11th century where the people - the Jews, as a nation that is not landed in the water demanded by the Europeans to leave the trading business, which is due to jealousy of the progress of European Jews trading business. Therefore, the Jews began to change their profession as a moneylender money / usury and made it to today, and then followed by an Italian Catholic family and that is Lambordia Cahorsia, although initially condemned by society but eventually received a high honor among the nobility and even of the church itself.

In the development of interest / usury until recently, he was allowed to be taken as a reason for abstinence, [12] is that creditors refrain (abstinence) in the sense of intention to suspend use of his own money just to meet the wishes of others, so that the debtor is considered mandatory pay rent on money borrowed. However, the factual reality that lenders will only lend the excess money than he needed, so the actual lender does not hold back on anything that consequently he would not be demanded in return for not doing these things. [13]

 In addition to the above reason is the reason the rent, the lender lends money to borrowers, so naturally if the borrower pays rent on the money. Keep in mind that the characteristics of different currencies with other goods that have the power shrinkage, damage and maintenance costs, thus making the rent on the money lent is not reasonable or prohibited. Thus the practice lend money (interest) equal to prakrek usury is forbidden by the shari'ah. 


E. CLOSING

The issue of riba in the Quran asserts that the prohibition of usury is not only based on legalistic considerations but also on moral and humanitarian considerations. Nature of usury as practiced in pre-Islamic period shows something that is prohibited in the Quran is essentially the exploitation of the weak, but subsequent development is that the practice is cruel and immoral. Therefore non-usurious financial institutions is a solution for Muslims at this time because there are no reasons have been given emergency financial institution with a growing number of non-usurious practices.

FOOTNOTE
  • [1] Louis Ma'luf, al Munjid (Beirut: Dar al Masyriq, 1986) p. 230
  • [2] Sayyid Sabiq, Fiqh as Sunnah, Juz III (Beirut: Dar al book of al Araby, 1971) p. 130
  • [3] Badr ad Din al Ayni, Umdatul Qari, Vol V (Constantinople: Mathba'a al Amira, H 1310) h. 436
  • [4] Muhammad Ali Shabuni, Rawain Bayyan Tafsir al-Ayat al Ahkam min al Quran, volumes I (Dar al-Quran al-Karim, 1972) p. 340
  • [5] Ibid.
  • [6] Ibid.
  • [7] At-Tabari, Jami 'al-Bayan' an ta'weel 'ala al-Quran, chapters IV, cet III (Egypt: Mustafa al babu al Halabi, 1987) p. 101
  • [8] M. Dawam Raharjo, Encyclopedia of the Quran, Riba, in the Journal of Science and Culture No. Ulumul Quran. 9 h in 1991. 48
  • [9] Muhammad Ali Shabuni, h.391 Rawain ......
  • [10] M. Dawam Raharjo, Encyclopedia of the Quran, Riba ............... h.70
  • [11] Muhammad Asad, The Message of the Qur'an (Gibraltar: Dar al Audalus, 1984) p. 633
  • [12] AS Sa'ad Harran, Islamic Finance Financing Partnership (Kuala Lumpur: coney Piblication, 1993) p. 79
  • [13] Muhammad Shafi'i Antonio, Bank Syariah From Theory to Practice, Cet IX (Jakarta: Gema Humanities Press, 2005) h.70
Ibrahim Lubis

Penulis:

Judul Makalah: The Riba
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