10:13 AM
Hadith when viewed in terms of whether or not he received a proof in beramaldapat divided into two Maqbul Hadith and Hadith Mardud. Talks on the division of Hadith for this masalh was not independent in terms of the actual study of the Hadith, both in terms of quality (credibility of narrator) and quantity (number of narrator), but in order to systematize and Hadith it is necessary to focus the issue of the subdivision.

As for the Hadith-Hadith is a Hadith-Hadith Maqbul accepted as evidence due to meet the requirements of the Sahih Hadith, to a degree mendapai Hadith Sahih Hadith to the need for further research, the wide range of issues in order to see the Hadith Sahih Hadith of the quality needs to be studied and examined: understanding and criteria Sahih Hadith, Sahih Hadith levels and different kinds, Law and the status kehujjahan Saheeh Hadith, the books of Sahih Hadith, should also be studied Hadith Hasan, Hasan Hadith definition and criteria, various Hadith Hasan, and ending with conclusions.

As for the understanding of scholars expressed various opinions about the Hadith Sahih Hadith Hasan and hereinafter will be described on the above issues are not left with the problems that need to be the bottom line.

B. Hadith Maqbul
A. Hadith Sahih
A. Understanding Saheeh Hadith and criteria.
As is known, when the tradition in terms of quality is divided into three categories: Saheeh, Hasan, and da'eef. Says Saheeh in terms of language is opposed ari ill, while his own Sahih Hadith terminology in terms of various scholars menta'rifkannya include:
Ta'rif Ibn 'Alwi al-Maliki al-Hasani:

"Tradition is continued sanadnya obtained from the narrator of the fair, which dhabit, received from the same transmitter (quality) do not belong nor syadz I'lat her all the more reprehensible then it is the terms of Sahih Hadith. [1 ]
While Abu Amr ibn al-Salah menta'rifkannya with:

Musnad Hadith Sahih is a sanadnya muttashil through the narration of a fair and equitable dhabit from dhabit again (again) until the end, no and no mu'allal syaz (hit 'illat). [2]
Ta'rif Nawawiy Imam, Imam ibn Nawawiy summarize the definition of Ash-Salah;

Hadith Sahih Hadith is a narration muttashil sanadnya through people who are fair and without syadz dhabit and 'illat.
Rahman even shorter Fatchur menta'rifkannya with:

"That was quoted Hadith (narrated) by a narrator who just, perfect memory, sanadnya serially, not ber'illat and not syadz. [3]
Sahih Hadith from several ta'rif above seems to have essentially the same purpose just to ta'rif Saheeh Hadith is a condition (criterion) Sahih Hadith, when viewed carefully from ta'rif turns out there are five criteria that can diperpegangi to see whether something can be said that the hadith Sahih Hadith or not and the five criteria are:

a. Sanadnya uninterrupted (muttashil).
b. Narrators are fair.
c. Perfect memory (dhabit)
d. Not Syadz (odd)
e. Tradition is not ber'illat (disability). [4]

The more detailed criteria of the scholars point out above is to be explained as follows:
Sanad Hadith should be continued. The point is that any hadith narrators received directly from the transmitter located above it, from the beginning to the end sanad sanad, and so on up to the Prophet Muhammad as a source of these traditions. Traditions that are not serialized sanadnya, can not be called Sahih Hadith, the Hadith as Munqathi ', Mu'dhal, Mu'allaq, and other Mudallas sanad was not continued. [5]

Narrators are fair. [6] Each of the narrators of Hadith have to be fair. The definition of fair here is that all transmitters must be Islam, baligh also meet the following requirements:
A. Always do all the religious orders and leave all larangnannya.
2. keep away from sinful deeds ketch; and
3. always keep your words and actions that can tarnish muru'ah. [7]

Narrators are dhobith, meaning that the narrators of hadith Hadith has an accuracy in receiving, understanding what is heard, and able to remember, and memorizing hadith since he menearaima until he narrated. Or he could keep on his record haditsyang of error, or from the exchange, reduction, and so on, which can change the Hadith. To dhabith's a narrator, as such, can be divided into two, namely: dhobit shodran (strength of memory or from memory) and dhobit kitaban (neatness and accuracy of writing or note) [8]

That the Hadith is not syaz, intent or syuzuz syadz (plural of syaz) here, is a hadith that contradicts the Hadith narrated by another, more powerful transmitters (istiqod), this notion that diperpegangii by Shafi and most other scholars. Seeing that sense can be understood not syaz (ghoiru syaz) is a hadith which matannya procure Hadith does not contradict other, more powerful or more tsiqoh. Al-Hadith judge Naisaburi include Fard (Hadith narrated by a narrator who tsiqoh, but no other narrators who narrated), into the Hadith Syaz this opinion is not held by the expert scholars of Hadith jumhur. [9]

Said ber'illat (ghoiru Mua'llal), the word 'illat plural is' illal or al'illal, according to the language that is defective, disease, ugliness and read errors. With the understanding that ber'illat traditions are traditions of disability or illness. Mean 'illat here means a cause which is hidden or vague. The point is that when viewed in the visible Shohih zohir tradition, but tradition is actually storing the similarity or doubt. [10]

2. Levels and the Hadith Shohih Various Kinds.
Effort among scholars compared the narrators-narrators who Maqbul and know-sanad sanad containing the maximum acceptable degree as narrators-narrators of famous people dengnan science, kedhobitan and justice by others. They assess the danger of some sanad shohih highest level other than the sanad-sanad due to meet the requirements qobul-loaded to the maximum and the perfection of the narrators in terms of criteria-criteria. They then call Ashahul Asanid. [11]

Against division Ashahul Asanid [12] are different scholars in the share. Ajjaj al-Khotib said based on the dignity of the mentioned above, the sanad muhaddisin split levels, namely;

a. Ashhohul Asanid, that the isnad chain of the highest rank. The Hadith scholars disagree on the first rank, there are some scholars who define "hadith narrated by Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri from Salim bin Abdillah bin Umar ibn Umar from" some other set of Hadith narrated by Sulaiman al-A'masyi from Ibrahim an- Nakhai from bin al-Qomah Qaois of Abdillah bin Mas'ud. Imam Bukhari and other scholars bebrapa set on the Hadith narrated by Imam Malik from Nafi Maula from Anas Ibn Umar Ibn 'Umar from.

b. Ahsanul al-Asanid. That series sanad above its level below the first level, such as the hadith narrated by Hamad ibn Thabit from Anas Salmah of.

c. Asanid Ad'aful al-Hadith the sanad circuit that lower levels of the second stage, like the narratives of Suhail ibn Abi Salih from his father from Abu Hurayrah. [13]

There is also a skillful scholar of Hadith traditions are divided according to the criteria by which diperpegangi mukhoriz (narrators who last membukukannya) Sahih Hadith, namely the seven levels:
  • Hadith of Bukhari and Muslim disepaki.
  • Hadith narrated by Bukhari alone.
  • Hadith that Muslims are diriwatkan
  • Tradition reported in accordance with the requirements of Bukhari and Muslim.
  • Hadith narrated by Bukhari peersyaratan.
  • Hadith narrated by Muslim requirements.
Next level is a Saheeh Hadith. According to another hadith Imams who do not follow terms such as Bukhari and Muslim, and Ibn Hibban Khuzaimah. [14]

While the various Hadith Sahih, in general the Muhaddisin share them with the two kinds, namely: Hadith Sahih Hadith Sahih li Zatihi and lighoirihi, and distribution of this Hadith is based on the difference in terms of memorization or memory of narrators. In the Sahih Hadith narrators lizatihi perfect memory while the Hadith Sahih Lighoiirihi less than perfect.

As is the Hadith Sahih al-Hasani Lizatihi according to the Hadith that he himself had met the criteria Maqbul keshohihannya as the Hadith, as described above, and requires no other hadith. [15]

While the Hadith is Sahih Hadith Lighoiirihi that do not meet perfectly the nature of Maqbul Hadith, the Hadith Sahih Hadith which is not native, but the degree will increase to Sahih Hadith because there are factors that can cover the lack of support available to him. [16] As an example of this Hadith is Hadith of Muhammad Ibn bersiwak that sanadnya Amrin from Abu Salamah from Abu Hurairah narrated by Tarmizi ago, but the hadith is also narrated by Bukhari and Muslim, while the sanad of Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Qomah Amrin is known for its properties as-Shidqi and al-Syiyanah but kuang strong memory. [17]

3. Law and Status Kehujjahan Shohih Hadith.
The some scholars of Hadith scholars and experts as well as the Usul fiqh experts agree make-Hadith Sahih hadith as evidence (basic guidelines) which must do good with it. This agreement comes in matters relating to the establishment of halal or haraam things, not in matters relating to faith, therefore there is no reason for any Muslim to leave. [18]

4. Scriptures Sahih Hadith.
Codification of the Hadith in the second century Hijri is the beginning of the emergence of different Hadith scholars see in terms of both quantity (number) and in terms of quality (strength and validity) of a Hadith. So many were the works of the early muhaddisin the Muwatta 'of Imam Malik, it's just that he does not specialize in the Hadith, Sahih Hadith, but also the Hadith Mursal, Munqoti and expressions of wisdom. Then came the Muslims and Muhaddisin bukhoi and others. [19]
The first book that specifically membahs the Hadith Sahih Hadith, namely: Shohih Bukhari (194-256 AH) was followed by Muslim Shohih (204-261 H), Sunan Abu Daud (202-275 Hadith), Sunan at-Tarmizi ( 209-279 H), Sunan al-Nasa'i (215-313 H), Sunan Ibn Majah (209-273 H).

B. Hadith Hasan
A. Definition and Criteria for Hasan Hadith.
Hasan according to language means ................. something you like and dicondongi by lust .. while the Hasan Hadith scholars differed according to the terms of which Ibn Hajar mendefenisikannya:

"Khabar on Sunday that dinukilkan through the fair narrator, perfect memory, concatenated with no ber'illat sanadnya and syaz called Sahih Hadith, but less robust memory strength 9sempurna) desebut Lizatihi Hasan. [20]
At-Turmuzi mendefenisikannya as follows:

Each Hadith that there are no narrators sanadnya accused falsely, on matannya no irregularities and the Hadith it is narrated by a road (road has many) of her. "
Definition of at-Turmuzi above looks less clear when compared with the definition of Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani above, but certainly at-Turmuzi bahw do not mean to equate between the Hadith Sahih Hadith Hasan, precisely because the at-Turmuzi first coined the term Hadith is Hasan . [21] But there is also the majority of the formulation that the Hadith Sahih Hadith Hasan same except there is a Hasan Hadith narrators less kedhobitannya level, or lower, than that of peawi Saheeh Hadith. [22]

Basically mention the Hadith Hasan himself had demonstrated the difference is that the Hadith Hasan lower position of Sahih Hadith, Ibn Hajar therefore confirms that the Hadith is Hasan Sahih Hadith the narrators possess dhobith lower than that of Sahih Hadith.

The criteria according to Alwi Hasan Hadith al-Maliki Hasani is:
  • Continued sanadnya.
  • Adil narrators (Rawi a'dalatul)
  • Dhobith narrators (Rawi Dhobitur), dhobith here is lower than the Saheeh Hadith msih no vagueness (doubt) on kedhobithannya.
  • Freed from syaz.
  • Free from 'illat. [23]
  • As an example of this is any Hadith Hadith narrated by Muhammad ibn Amr ibn al-Qomah is well-known friend of the truth, but less strong on occasion, this example is similar to the above Lighoiirihi conoh Saheeh Hadith by karenaya there are scholars who equate the Hadith Sahih Hadith is Hasan .
2. Various Kinds of Hadith Hasan, Law and Status Kehujjahannya.

Hasan Hadith is also divided to two parts: the Hadith and Hadith Hasan Hasan Lizatihi Lighoirihi.
a. Hadith Hasan Hasan Lizatihi in terms of language can tend to be, the good, and good. But in terms of the term is "A Tradition sanadnya continued from beginning to end, we are told by those who are less dhobith adiltetapi there, and no syuzuz and 'illat. Due to the nature of Hadith Hasan Lizatihi [24] is the same meaning to the notion of Hadith Hasan keanyakan scholars generally equate the Hadith is Hasan Lizatihi with Hasan Hadith. As an example of this Hadith: Meaning "The word has told us Turmuzi Abu Kuraib, we had to Country menderitakan Abdah bin Sulaiman, from Muhammad bin Amar, of Abi Salamah from Abi Hurairah , he said: Messenger of Allah has said: "If I'm not afraid to membertakan my people, I would order them bersikat teeth at every prayer. Hadith is in accordance with the above criteria namunkhusus dhobith problem occurs because one of the problems sanandnya Muhammad ibn Amr ibn al-Qomah less powerful memory. [25]

b. Lighoirihi Hasan Hadith, in terms of language lighoiri means: karenan others. In terms of Hadith Hasan define istolah Attahan Lighoirihi with:

(That is where the road comes Hadith dhai'f berbilang (more than one), and because kedhoifannya not for evil or a liar narrators. [26]

From the above definition implies that Attahan Hadith Hadith Hasan Hasan Lighoirihi is not memeenuhi requirements completely or basically the Hadith Hadith Dho'if, but because of the sanad or matanlain to support this, then the position Dhoif Hadith is a Hadith Hasan degree rise.

Hasan Hadith Lighoirihi example: As for the meaning "Hadith narrated by at-Turmuzi and narrated Hasan, from the way Syu'bah from Ubaid Allah ibn Asim of Abd Allah ibn Amr ibn Rabiah from his father, the sons of a woman preacher Fazarh dowry to marry a pair of sandals, then the prophet of Allah said: "Would you give up yourself while you just got a pair of slippers?", the woman replied "willing", then rasulpun allow it.
In the above Hadith narrators are a'shim, as assessed by paa scholars of Hadith as a dhoif peawi as bad on occasion, but the at-Tirmidhi said it as hasan, because the coming (found another sanad) hadith through another path. [27]

While the Hadith Hasan when viewed from the status of Justice and then as the Hadith Sahih kehujjahannya, although rank is dibawh status Sahih Hadith, the Hadith which can dijadikn proof in law or in determination of charity. The scholars of hadith, usul fiqh scholars and jurists agree on kehujjahannya.

3. Scriptures Hasan Hadith.
We can look at the Hasan Hadith-Hadith books containing Hadith-Hadith is Hasan:
Jami 'al-Tirmidhi, or better known as Sunan at-Tirmizi, Abu Isa Muhammad ibn Isa Muhammad ibn Isa ibn Surah al-Tirmidhi (209-279 H).

Sunan Abu Daud, by Sulaiman ibn al-Asy'at ibn Ishak al-Azali al-Sijistani or better known as Abu Daud (202-275 H),
Sunan al-Darquthni, olehh Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn 'Umar ibn Ahmad al-Dar Quhni (306-385 H / 919-995 AD) [28]

C. Hadith Mardud

A. Hadith Dhoif
a. Definition and Criteria Hadith Da'eef
Da'eef word in language is the opposite of al-Qowiy, which means weak, this is the Hadith Hadith Da'eef mardud, the Hadith that diolak and can not be used as proof or argument in a legal setting. [29] As some scholars define the Hadith Da'eef as follows:
Imam Ibn Abi Amar Salah Da'eef Hadith defines as follows:


"Every Hadith-Hadith who is not her nature nor the Hadith Sahih properties the Hasan Hadith is called Hadith Da'eef him." [30]
Hadith Imam Ibn cashier Da'eef defines as follows:

"Hadith - Hadith that does not appear to him the properties of Sahih and Hasan properties". [31]
Haan Hafiz Imam al-Hadith Da'eef Mas'udi provide the following definition:

"Hadith which is missing one or more of the terms or Hadith Hasan Sahih Hadith." [32]
From the definition above can be concluded that the Hadith is the Hadith Da'eef insufficient and hasan Saheeh requirements both in terms of sanad and matannya, the lower strength compared with the Hadith and the Saheeh Hadith Hasan.

From the above conclusion can also dambinn essence that Hadith Da'eef criteria are:
A. disconnection between a narrator with the other narrators in the sanad of the Hadith, which should be continued.

2. there are defects in the self seoang Hadith narrators or the honor of it.
From both these criteria can be described criteria Da'eef kedhoifan of the Hadith.

B. Various Kinds of hadith Da'eef
Hadith types Da'eef very much and not enough when described as a whole dalammakalah this, for it is the author trying to sort out into two kinds of Hadith Da'eef therefore why, namely:
a. Caused by the breaking of traditions Da'eef Sanad.
Hadith Mursal
Mursal hadith is:

"Tradition dimarfu'kan (appointed) by a tabi'i the Messenger of Allah, whether it be words, actions and taqrir, be it large or small Tabi'i."

Sseperti definition is widely used by scholars of Hadith, they just do not give the line between small and large tabi'i. But there are also skillful scholar of Hadith traditions that impose limits only on marfu'kan Mursal to tabi'i tabi'i large because of the narration is a friend and the Hadith to tabi'i small dimarfu'kan including Munqoti Hadith '.

In terms of the science of Hadith, Hadith Mursal is expressed in language is isim maf'ul of athlaqa arsala meaning, which is releasing and freeing. In terms Mursal Hadith is:

"Mursal Hadith is the Hadith that fall from the end sanadnya, a narrator after tabi'i.
The purpose of the definition above can be dipaham that a tabi'i says the Prophet said so, den, etc., while Tabi'i is clearly not met the Prophet. In this case Tabi'i tersbut eliminate the generation of an intermediary between the companions saw the tabi'i Rasulullahh.

as an example of this is Mursal Hadith:
"Hadith narrated by Muslim in the book Shahihnya on the" sale "(the book of al-Buyu ') he said," has told me Muhammad ibn Rafi', has told us Hujjain, had told us al-Layth, from Uqail from Ibn Shihab from Ibn Ibn Ssaid Musayyab, that the Messenger of Allah forbade selling dates are still to be cult, with dates that have been dried. "

Said bin Musayyab is a great tabi'i. He narrated this hadith without mentioning the narrator (a friend) who became an intermediary between himself and the Prophet. In this case Ibn Musyayyab had to abort the final of the narrators is a friend. It could be other than a friend digugurkannya there are also other tabi'i digugurkannya.

Classification of Hadith Mursal

As iterangkan that the Hadith is the Hadith that way Mursal sanadnya abort the last narrator is a friend who immediately accept the Hadith of the Prophet. Diitinjau in terms of who abort and of its properties, then the Hadith Mursal consists of three parts:

A. Mursal Shahabi, namely: Preaching friend leaning against the Messenger of Allah, but he did not hear or see for himself what he preached, because the Prophet was still alive when he was little atauu backward conversion to Islam. [33] Hadith shahabi Mursal is not at issue when all transmitters in sanadnya included in the category of fair, so kemajhulannya not be negative.

2. Mursal silent 'ie: the Hadith narrated by tabi'i but tabi'i who narrated the Hadith contemporary of friends but never heard or witnessed the Hadith directly from the Prophet. [34]

3. Mursal Jali, that is: if penggugurannya performed by narrator (tabi'i) can be seen clearly sekalii by the public, that renders the person has never been a contemporary of those who digugurkannya or who received the news directly from the Prophet. [35]

Hadith Munqati '
Munqati word 'is ism inqata'a maf'ul of meaning is lost, the term hadith Munqati' are:

Al-Munqati 'the Hadith a narrator who killed him or mentioned him a narrator who is not clear.
Various kind of abortion (Inqita ')

A. Narrators who narrated the Hadith clearly be known to his contemporaries not to the teachers who gave him the Hadith.

2. with vague known only to qualified persons only. Diketahuii with recourse to the excess of a narrator or more in the Hadith of others. [36]

Another Hadith mentions Munqati definition 'is that the hadith narrators sanadnya a fall in one place or more or a narrator who is mentioned therein gmubham. In terms of the death of the narrators, it is the same Hadith if Hadith Mursal only limited attempts to discuss the death of a friend Mursal, while the Hadith Munqati 'there is no such limitation. So if there is a death of a good narrator at the beginning, middle or end of a Hadith is called Hadith Munqati him '. [37]

Examples of Hadith Munqati 'is:
Abdu olehh tradition reported from at-Tsauri alRazzaq of Zaid Ibn Abi Isaac Huzaifah Yutsi of the state as Marfu Hadith '(derived from the Prophet), if you lift the Abu Bakr as the leader he is a strong and trustworthy.
The above Hadith contain kemunqati'an in two places, the first Abd ar-Razaq had not heard of at-Sauri. He heard it from an-Nu'man ibn Abi al-Jundi Syaibah of at-Tsauri. Both at0Tsauri not heard it from Ibn Ishak. He only narrated from Abu Syuraik of Isaac. [38]
3. Hadith Mudallas
ism maf'ul mudallas word is darii dallasa meaning dark or blend with the dark. According to the science of Hadith Mudallas diarikan with:

Reported that a living person narrator of his contemporaries, but he never met anyone who diriwayatkannya and did not hear her because of the vagueness of listening ". [39]
Various Kinds of hadith Mudallas
A. Tadlis isnad is:

That he narrates from someone he met and no doubt mndengar Hadith because people listen to or from contemporaries who never met her, and doubted that he had met him and heard him.
2. Tadlis Syuyukh

That a narrator of Hadith narrated from his teacher, he heard from him, then he was given the title kepadanyaatau correlated or not he sifati diketahuii people that he is not recognized. For example:

Have told us kapada Abd Allah ibn Abd Allah. "The meaning here is Abd Allah ibn Abu Bakr Abu Daud al-Sijistani. [40]
As explained the motive of Hadith tadlis mebuat it could be because he pushed for the mean-spirited teacher to cover defects or weaknesses of a cover h. transmitters are known to do only once tadlis although he was largely Jarh makak (caacat) and since it mardud Hadith.
4. Hadith Mu'addhal
Mu'addhal word means to hide something into something mysterious or problematic. In the language according to the science of hadith Mu'addhal are:

Traditions that fall from two or more SCARA sanadnya consecutive sanda good from the start, middle or end sanad. [41] in the hadith is among the tabi'in mursalkan by nature. This hadith is the same or even lower than Munqati Hadith '. Just from the ugliness of its quality, if kemunqoti'annya more than one place.
Some scholars of Hadith narrated from the words of the experts of fiqh: "The Messenger of Allah said so-so" including Mu'addhal. Because among the authors there are two or more transmitters. Though the authors mostly live fiqh ppada tabi'in times after century. [42]
5. Hadith Mu'allaq
the language is Mu'allaq maf'ul ism of the word 'meaning alaqa hang something on something else so that it becomes dependent "while according to the terms of the science of Hadith, Mu'allaq are:

Something that has killed one or more transmitters in succession both sanad from the early death of it or not. [43]
Others mentioned in the Hadith literature Mu'allaq are:

Hadith are removed from the initial sanadnya a narrator in a row ".

Mu'allaq Hadith form.
Mukharriz tradition usually immediately said: The Messenger of Allah said: ........ mukhorij Hadith or remove all except sanadnya friends, or friends and tabi'in.
Ne example Mu'allaq Hadith:
Hadith narrated by Bukhari pda muqoddimah chapter to "cover your thighs," said Abu Musa, the Prophet when he covered her luut Usman go ".
The above Hadith is the Hadith Mu'allaq, because Bukhori remove all sanadnya, except for a friend, Abu Musa al-Asya'ri. And the law is mardud tertolah and can not be used as proof in a legal setting. Because the condition is not met kemakbulannya tersambungnya sanad is not due to be deleted and not known who the narrators are erased.

b. Hadith Da'eef the narrator in terms of disability.
In terms of admissibility of a Hadith to be used as proof that the hadith ahad, in principle, divided to two parts of the Hadith Hadith Maqbul Maqbul which is Hadith Sahih and Hasan Hadith Hadith while the second was the Tradition Da'eef mardud and all that stuff.
Because defects in the narrators of this hadith Da'eef both in terms of honor and justice sanadnya caused by transmitters, religion tau tau keelitiannya occasion, but it is also due to the dissolution sanad narrators or aborted or not met each other between the brothers with the others. In this Hadith Da'eef the terms of the various narrators are divided as follows:
A. Mudha'af Hadith.
That Hadith is not agreed kedhaifannya. As an expert judge hadith contain kedhaifan, both in the sanad and matannya, and others say it stronger but more powerful kedhaifannya assessment. Ibn al-Jaui is the person who first melakkukan sorting of this kind of Hadith.
2. Hadith Matruk

In solitary Hadith narration and narrated by people who falsely accused in the transmission of Hadith, the Hadith Nabawi, or often lie in the conversation or obvious wickedness, through deeds or words, and often wrong or forget. Missalnya Hadith Amr bin Cryptic Jabir al-Jafiy. What is clear is that the Hadith is the Hadith Da'eef Matruk at the lowest level.
The definition of an ambassador accused dengnan narrator is a narrator who is always lying in the talks, but has not been proven that he lied dalammembuata h. As for those who lie outside the Hadith rejected periwayatannya manufacture.
Example Matruk Hadith: "Ibn Adyi two narrators explain that Abdur Rahman and his father Zaid, was a matrukul traditions.
3. Munkar hadith.
Munkar hadith hadith narrators are highly defective in the levels of very real wrong or wickedness. The Hadith scholars give varying definitions of this Munkar hadith. Among them there are two definitions that are always used, namely:
a. Sanadnya hadith contained in a narrator who is wrong, or often times forget and look real wickedness.
b. Hadith narrated by the hadith narrators Da'eef is opposite to that reported by narrators who tsiqoh.
4. Hadith Mu'allal
Muallal hadith is defective because the narrators of Hadith al-WAHM, which is only a speculation or conjecture does not hold much water. For example, a narrator who suspect a sanad is muttashil (continued) which is actually munqathi '(disconnected), or that he mengirsalkan mutthasil, and memauqufkan the maru' and so on.
5. Mudraj Hadith.
Idraj means include the whole hog to one another and merge to the other, in other words mudraj Hadith is the Hadith in which there are additional words that are not part of the Hadith. Mudraj Hadith there are two, namely:
Mudraj isnad: "a peerawi added sentences of himself when he argued a case caused by a Hadith that the person who narrated further consider what she said was also part of the Hadith.
Mudraj Matan: something that is put in honor of a hadith which is not an honor of the tradition is, without any separation of them (ie the honor Tradition and what is included). Or insert a word of honor into a hadith narrators, so thought of saying those words berasalah Prophet.
6. Hadith Maqlub
Maqlub Hadith is a Hadith that replaces another lafadz lafadz with the sanad of hadith or matannya ith way of prioritizing or mengakhirknnya. In other words, no player feedback between honor and good sanad or diakhirkan precedence. In this case it is clear that the law can not be trtolak and a legal argument.
7. Hadith Mudhtharib
Hadith is a Hadith that diriwyatkan Mudhtharib in different forms, each equally strong. Example:

Hadith Abu Bakr may Allah be pleased that he said "O Messenger of Allah, I see you telahberuban" The Prophet replied, "Hud and his brothers that caused gray". (Narrated by Tirmidhi)
8. Hadith Hadith Mushahaf the sentence was changed, which is narrated by the narrators who tsiqot, both lafadz and meaning of this Hadith has changed sanadnya and unisex changing matannya.
9. Syaz the Hadith Hadith narrated by narrators who Maqbul, the narrator of the dhabit, just and perfect goodness but is contrary to the Hadith Hadith related by other narrators are more tsiqot, fair and dhobit shingga rejected this hadith and hadith is also called the Mahfuz traditions. [44]

C. Laws that rely on the Hadith Da'eef
There is three opinion Hadith scholars in universities Da'eef:
Hadith Da'eef absolutely not practiced, both on and ahkam fadhail and this is the opinion of most scholars, including Imam Bukhari and Muslim.
Tradition can be practiced Da'eef absolutely, this is the opinion of Imam Ahmad and Abu Daud who prefer Hadith ra'yu Da'eef than one.
Hadis Dha'if dapat digunakan dalam masalah fadhail mawa'iz atau sejenis dengan memenuhi kriteria yang ada. Ibnu Hajar membaginya kepada kriteria yaitu : :
- kedhaifannyaa tidak terlalu
- Hadis Dha'if yang termasuk cakupan Hadis pokok yang bisa diamalkan.
- Ketika mengamalkannya tidak meyakini bahwa ia berstatus kuat tapi sekedar hati-hati. [45] .

D. Cover
Adapun yang menjadi kesimpulan pada pembahasan ini adalah :
Hadis dari segi kehujjahannya terdiri dari dua bagian yaitu Hadis maqbul dan hadis Mardud. Hadis maqbul terbagi lagi kepada dua bagian yaitu shohih dan hasan. Sedangkan Hadis Mardud adalah Hadis Dha'if.
Hadis Shahih adalah Hadis yang memenuhi persyaratan, sanad Hadis tersebut bersambung, perawinya adil, perawinya dhobit, hadis tersebut tidak syaz, Hadis tersebut selamat dari 'illat atau cacat, Hadis ini terbagi kepada du yaitu Hadis Shahih Lizatihi dan Hadis Shahih Lighoiirihi. Hukumnya adalah wajib berpegangan atau beramal dengannya dan dapat dijadikan hujjah.
Hadis Hasan adalah Hadis yang pengertiannya hampir sama dengan Hadis Shahih hanya saja pada Hadis Hasan pada bagian syarat perawinya diragukan kedhobitannya. Hadis Hasan terbagi dua yaitu Hadis Hasan Lizatihi dan Hadis Hasan Lighoirihi, hakikat Hadis Hasan Lizatihi dengan Hadis Hasan, pada Hadis Hasan Lighoirihi terdapat salah satu sanadnya rusak hafalannya namun karena Hadis tersebut diriwayatkan oleh riwayat lain yang sama atau lebih kualitas sanadnya maka ia dapat dijadikan hujjah .
Hadis Mardud yaitu Hadis Dha'if adalah hadis yang tidak memenuhi persyaratan untuk menjadi Hadis Shahih ataupun Hadis Hasan karena terdapat beberapa cacat dari segi sanad maupun matannya. Hadis Dha'if tidak diamalkan secara mutlak namun dapat digunakan untuk fawhail mawa'iz, lebih baik bila dibandingkan ra'yu pribadi seseorang.

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Daftar Pustaka dan Footnote

A. Qadir Hassan, Ilmu Mustholah Hadis . London : CV. Diponegoro, 1996.

Abu Isa Muhammad bin Isa at-Turmuzi, Sunan at-Turmuzi Wali Songo Huwa al-Jami' as-Shohih. Beirut , Dar al-Fikr, 1400 H / 1980.

Al-Imam Ibnu Kasir, al-Baits al-Hadis Syarh Ikhtiar “Ulum al-Hadis” ( Beirut : daar al-Pikr, tt.

Fatchur Rahman, Ikhtishar Mustholah Hadis ( London : PT al-Ma'arif.

Fathur Rahman, Ikhisar Musthalahul Hadis . London : Al-Ma'arif, 1991.

Hafiz Hasan Mas'udi, Minhatu al-Mughits pil Mustholahul Hadis. Surabaya : Ahmad Nabni, tt.

Izzudin Balig, Minhaj as-Sholihin min al-Hadis Wali Songo as-Sunh Khatim al-Anbiyaa' Wali Songo Mursalin . Beirut : Daar Pikr, tt.

M. Ajjaj al-Khatib, Ushulul Hadis, Pokok-Pokok Ilmu Hadis , Judul asli : Ushul al-Hadis diterjemahh oleh: M.Qadirun Nur, Ahmad Musyafiq. Jakarta : Gaya Media Pratama, 1998.

MM Azami, Memahami Ilmu Hadis Tela'ah Metodologi dan Literatur. Jakarta : Lentera, 2003.

Mahmud Attahan, Uhul al-Takhrij Wali Songo Dirasah al-Asanid. Riyad : Maktabah al-Ma'arif, 1412 H/ 1991 M.

Muhammad 'Alwi al-Maliki al-Hasani, al-Minhal al-Lathifu fi Ushuli al-Hadis Tahrif. taba' bi Tasrih Wizarah al-A'lam, 1410 H.

Munzier Suparta dan Utang Ranuwijaya, Ilmu Hadis. Jakarta : PT. RajaGrafindo Persada, 1993.

Nawir Yuslem, Ulumul Hadis . Jakarta : PT Mutiara Sumber Widya, 1997.

Syeikh Atiyah al-AJuri, Mustholahul Hadis . Jeddah: Haramain, tt.

[1] Muhammad 'Alwi al-Maliki al-Hasani, al-Minhal al-Lathifu fi Ushuli al-Hadis Tahrif (taba' bi Tasrih Wizarah al-A'lam, 1410 H), hal. 58.

[2] M. Ajjaj al-Khatib, Ushulul Hadis, Pokok-Pokok Ilmu Hadis , Judul asli : Ushul al-Hadis diterjemahh oleh: M.Qadirun Nur, Ahmad Musyafiq (Jakarta : Gaya Media Pratama, 1998), hal. 276.

[3] Fatchur Rahman, Ikhtishar Mustholah Hadis (Bandung : PT al-Ma'arif, 1974), hal. 117.

[4] Ibnu Shalah berpendapat, bahwa syarat hadis diatas, telahh disepakati oleh para muhaddisin. Hanya saja kalaupun mereka berselisih tentang keshahihan hadis, bukanlah karena syarat-syarat itu sendiri, melainkan karena adanya perselisihan terwujud atau tidaknya sifat-sifat tersebut, atau karena adanya perselisihan dalam mensyaratkan sebagian sifat-sifat tersebut. Misalnya Abi Zinad mensyaratkan peraawinya mempunyai ketenaran, Ibnu as-Sam'ani Hadis Shahih cukup diriwayatkan oleh Rawi yang tsiqoh (adil dan dhobith) saja tetapi harus paham benar apa yang diriwayatkannya, banyak hadis yang telah didengarnya, kuat ingatannya. Abu Hanifah mnsyaratkan, peerawinya haruspaham benar, Ibnu hajar tidak sependapat dengan ulama-ulama diatas karena syarat-syarat yang dikemukakan Abi Zinad sudah tercakup dalam dhobith, sedang sarat-syarat Ibnu as-Sam'ani sudah termasuk dalam syarat “tidak ber'illat”, sementara jumhur Muhaddisin, bahwa suatu hadis dinilai shohih, bukanlah tergantung pada banyaknya sanad, namun kalau sanadnya atau matannya shohih, kendatipun rawinya itu hanya satu orang saja pada tiap-tiap thobaqat. Ibid.

[5] Nawir Yuslem, Ulumul Hadis (Jakarta : PT Mutiara Sumber Widya, 1997), hal. 220.

[6] Maududi yang sering disebut ppendukung hadis, mengungkapkan contoh yang mungkin paling mengejutkan sebagaimana yang dikutipnya dari penentang hadis. Ibnu Ummar menyebut Abu Hurairah pembohong; Aisyah mengkritik Anas karena menyampaikan Hadis, padahal Anas masih anak-anak ketika Rasulullah saw masih hidup; Hasan Ibnu Ali menyebut Ibnu Umar dan Ibnu Zubair pembohong. Jelas makdu Maududi bukanlah untuk mndiskreditkan literature hadis secara keseluruhan. Dia hanya ingin menyebutkan alasan perlu bagi mengkaji ulang literature hadis. Abu al'Ala al-Mududi, hadis aw al-Qur'an (taphimat : Tarjuman al-Qur'an, 1934), hal. 318-349, lihat juga pada Daniel W. Brown, Relevansi Islamdalam Sunnah Modern, judul asli : Rethingking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought, diterjemahkan oleh : Jaziar Radianti dan Estin Sriyani Muslim ( London : Mizan, 2000) h. 114.

[7] Munzier Suparta dan Utang Ranuwijaya, Ilmu Hadis (Jakarta : PT. RajaGrafindo Persada, 1993) hal. 113.

[8] Yuslem, h. 221.

[9] Suparta dan Ranuwijaya, h. 115.

[10] Ibid.

[11] Al-Khatib, h. 227-278.

[12] Kritikus Hadis lebih memilih sebutan Hadis shohihul isnad dari pada sebutan Hadis Shahih, karena khawatir hadisnya syadz atau mu'allal, sehingga yang shohih hanyalah sanadnya. Dalam kondisi seperti ini tidak ada kelaziman hubungan antara keshohihan dan keshohihan matan. Syaikhul islam Ibn Hajar mengatakan yang tidak layak lagi adalah bahwa sorang Imam diantara mereka tidak beralih dari sebutan shohih kesebutan shohihul isnad kecuali karena alasan tertentu. Namun, bila yang menyatakan sebutan itu adalah perawi yang hafiz lagi bisa dipercaya, tanpa menyebut 'illat kodihah terhadap hadis yang bersangkutan,maka jelas menunjukkan keshohihan matan pula. Lihat M. Azaz al-Khotib, hal. 278-279.

[13] Sunarta dan Ranuwijaya, hal. 118.

[14] Yuslem, hal. 225.

[15] Ibid.

[16] Muhammad Alwi al-Maliki al-Hasani, hal. 69, lihat juga pada Suparta dan Ranuwijaya hal 117.

[17] Lihat Yuslem, hal. 226.

[18] Abu Isa Muhammad bin Isa at-Turmuzi, Sunan at-Turmuzi Wali Songo Huwa al-Jami' as-Shohih (Beirut, Dar al-Fikr, 1400 H / 1980) h. 6.

[19] Al-Khatibi, hal. 279.

[20] Suparta dan Rnuwijaya, hal. 119-120.

[21] Ibid , h. 120-121.

[22] Yuslem, h. 229.

[23] Al-Hasani, h. 66.

[24] Semua syarat Hadis Shahih diatas dibutuhkan oleh Hadis Hasan Lizatihi, kecuali bahwa seorang atau seluruh periwayatnya termasuk golongan shodiq yang sebanding, MM Azami, Memahami Ilmu Hadis Tela'ah Metodologi dan Literatur (Jakarta : Lentera, 2003), h. 109.

[25] A. Qadir Hassan, Ilmu Mustholah Hadis (Bandung : CV. Diponegoro, 1996), h. 72-73.

[26] Mahmud Attahan, Uhul al-Takhrij Wali Songo Dirasah al-Asanid (Riyad : Maktabah al-Ma'arif, 1412 H/ 1991 M), h. 51.

[27] Ibid.

[28] Ibid.

[29] Yuslem, h. 236.

[30] Ibid

[31] Al-Imam Ibnu Kasir, al-Baits al-Hadis Syarh Ikhtiar “Ulum al-Hadis” ( Beirut : daar al-Pikr, tt), h. 42.

[32] Hafiz Hasan Mas'udi, Minhatu al-Mughits pil Mustholahul Hadis ( Surabaya : Ahmad Nabni, tt) h. 10.

[33] Yuslem, hal. 240.

[34] Fathur Rahman, Ikhisar Musthalahul Hadis (Bandung : Al-Ma'arif, 1991), h. 181.

[35] Ibid.

[36] Ibid.

[37] M. Ajaj Khatib, Ushulul Hadis, hal. 305-306.

[38] Ibid

[39] Izzudin Balig, Minhaj as-Sholihin min al-Hadis Wali Songo as-Sunnah Khatim al-Anbiyaa' Wali Songo Mursalin ( Beirut : Daar Pikr, tt), h. 49.

[40] Yuslem, hal. 253.

[41] Syikh Atiyah al-AJuri, Mustholahul Hadis (Jeddah : Haramain, tt), h. 58.

[42] M. Azaz al-Khatib, hal. 306.

[43] Hafiz Hasan al-Ma'udi, hal. 22.

[44] Yuslem, h. 256-277.

[45] M. Ajjaj al-Khatib, Hal. 315-316.
Ibrahim Lubis


Judul Makalah: DISTRIBUTION BY Hadith
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