Aneka Ragam Makalah

Dynamics and Development of Pesantren

This a pesantren
Pesantren is an Islamic educational institute which has very old age. The establishment of the Islamic School was originally initiated by the Wali Songo also initiated by Sheikh Maulana Malik Ibrahim who came from Gujarat India. Today boarding schools have a new tendencies in order to renovate the system that had been used. Lately, schools have tendencies that seem intended to improve the quality of education available. in this paper will be discussed in the boarding school | Dynamics and Development.

A. Preliminary

The lack of data about schools, either in the form of manuscripts or other historical relics which describes the early history of the revival boarding, make-keterannga keeterangan messages associated with them are very diverse. However, this shortcoming would be the determinant factor for the continued maketh the history of boarding schools as a study material which is never dry. Besides the lack of boarding catatatan history also then make its own reasons for the resumption of the track history penelusuraan pesantren in Indonesia on an ongoing basis.

It is inevitable that the agency boarding school plays an important role in efforts to provide education for the people of Indonesia, especially religious education. Boarding schools, from the very beginning up until today still continues to exist and play a role in the effort to provide quality education. This paper is directed to clearly see the developments in the world of boarding schools from the beginning of its emergence to the present, as well as various kinds of dynamics that accompany the existence of schools as educational institutions and the public protector.

B. History The establishment of the Islamic School

A. Beginning of the Standing

Pesantren is an Islamic educational institute which has very old age, has grown since hundreds of years ago, which at least five constituent memilikii, the chaplain, students, cottage, mosques and religious teaching of the sciences. [1]

In determining when boarding the first time standing in Indonesia, it first needs to track the first time when Islam entered the peninsula the archipelago. There are varying opinions about when the entry of Islam in Indonesia, some have argued since the seventh century, but there is also the opinion since the eleventh century. Regardless of the debate about when the entry of Islam in Indonesia, but the occurrence of more intense contact between the Hindu-Buddhist culture and Islam started around the thirteenth century when the trade contacts between the Hindu kingdom of Java and the Kingdom of Islam in the Middle East and India. [2] and the spread Islam in Indonesia especially in Java can not be separated from the role of the wali Songo fight for and propagate Islamic values.

The establishment of the Islamic School was originally initiated by the Wali Songo also initiated by Sheikh Maulana Malik Ibrahim who came from Gujarat India. The Wali Songo is not so difficult to establish a boarding school for pre-existing Hindu-Buddhist Education Instiusi the convent and hostel system as a place of learning and teaching for pastors in Indonesia bikshu [3]. Islam during the development of Islam, convent and hostel does not change shape but its contents will change from Hindu and Buddhist teachings to be replaced with Islamic teachings, which later laid the basis for the establishment of boarding schools.

Furthermore boarding by some members of the Wali Songo pesantren as a place that used to teach the teachings of Islam to the people of Java. Sunan Bonang set up a boarding school in Tuban, Sunan Ampel Ampel founded the school in Surabaya and Sunan Giri founded a boarding school in Sidomukti then this place is better known as Giri Kedaton. [4]

The presence of the Wali Songo pesantren also the founding pioneer in the development of Islam in Java is very important with respect to a very dominant role. Wali Songo to a process of endless, gradual and managed to create a society of mutual students and coexist peacefully. One approach is in conformity with the Javanese philosophy of life that emphasizes stability, security and harmony.

Pendekaan Wali Songo, who then gave birth to boarding school with all its traditions, behavior and lifestyle to imitate and follow the pious predecessors of the best, mengarifi local culture and tradition is the main characteristic of the pesantren. This character is expressed as a dominant factor for the spread of Islam in Indonesia. [5] In addition, the most prominent feature in the early stages of the pesantren education and cultivation of religious values ​​to the students pass-through classic books. [6]

The issue of the origins of the pesantren historically are more accurately viewed as a result of acculturation are two great traditions of Islam and Hindu-Buddhist interacting and mutually hamper each other than to accept the position the heritage of Islamic tradition as a tradition of passivity. That is, the view of life and religious thought among the schools do not simply taken for granted inherited the Hindu-Buddhist culture.

2. Islamic School In Colonial Period

Pesantren
The Dutch colonial times, in various ways invaders attempted to discredit the Islamic education which is managed by natives including boarding school. For the colonial government set up educational institutions with the system prevailing in the west at the time, but this is only for the elite society of Indonesia. So when there are two alternative education for the people of Indonesia.

Most of the colonial schools are directed to the formation of an elite society that will be used to maintain political and economic supremasii for the Dutch Government. With the establishment of educational institutions or schools that cater for most Banga Indonesia is mainly for the privileged aristocracy and the colonial government officials, then that's occurred since the competition between educational institutions with the institution of government schools. [7]

Although it must compete with schools who held the Dutch government, schools continue to grow in number. Competition occurs not only in terms of ideological and educational ideals, but also appears in the form of political resistance and even physically. Almost all physical resistance (war) against the colonial government in the 19th century originated or at least get the full support of schools, such as a war chaplain, Diponegoro and Banjar War.

Faced with this reality led to the Dutch government at the end of the 19th century to suspect the existence of pesantren, which they regard as a source of resistance against the Dutch government. In 1882 the Dutch established Priesterreden (religious court) whose job overseeing education in schools. Then issued Ordinance (law) of 1905 concerning the supervision of peguruan only teaches religion (religious school), and the teacher-teach Guu who should get the permission of local government. [8]

Along with the development of modern Western schools are starting to touch some of the people of Indonesia, pesantren also seems to have developed a qualitative, although ruangeraknya constantly monitored and restricted. Ideas of reform in Islam, including the renewal of education began to go to Indonesia, and began to penetrate into the world of Islamic boarding schools and other education.

These reforms led to modern classical system started to go to boarding school, which previously was not known. Halaqah method turns into a classical system, by starting to use chairs, desks and teach general subjects. Meanwhile, some schools began to introduce the madrasah system as applied to public schools.

3. Growth and Development of the Period of Independence

Historically the role of boarding schools, where since the national awakening to the struggle for the independence of Indonesia, pe always been able to appear and participate actively. Hence after the independence of schools still have places people hearts. Ki Hajar Dewantara just as the leaders of National Education and Teaching Pendididkan minister said that Indonesia's first boarding school is the foundation of national education, as appropriate and in harmony with the spirit and personality of Indonesia. [9]

Neither is the case with the Government of Indonesia, acknowledged that the pesantren and madrasah is dasaar education and national education resources, and therefore ituharus developed, given the guidance and assistance. Since the beginning of the presence of a boarding school with its flexible (flexible) was able to adjust to society sera meet the demands of society. So is the era of independence and development now, schools have been able to show her independence and active fill development, particularly in the development of qualified human resources.

Various innovations have been made ​​to the development of pesantren both by society and government. The entry of common knowledge and skills into the world of boarding schools as an effort mmberikan dalah tambhan provision that if the students have completed their education could live in the community.

Today boarding schools have a new tendencies in order to renovate the system that had been used, such as getting familiar with the modern scientific methodology, the den-oriented education and functional, that is open to developments outside of himself. Also diversified programs and activities more open and its dependence with the kiai was absolute, and can simultaneously equip the students with a broad range of knowledge outside of religious subjects and skills needed in jobs and also can serve as a center for community development. [10]

In order to maintain the viability of schools, government schools strive to help develop the potential of the dimilinya. Direction of development of the emphasis on, first, an institutional boarding school improvement goals within the framework of national education and development potential as a rural social institutions. Second, the increase in the curriculum with educational methods for efficiency and effectiveness of targeted schools. Third, to promote vocational education in boarding schools to develop the potential of schools in the area of social infrastructure and quality of life, and the last, perfect shape madrasah boarding school with a decision by the three ministers in 1975 about improving the quality of education in madrasah.

Lately, schools have tendencies that seem intended to improve the quality of education that exists, as has been dikemukaakan earlier. Growth and development of the pesantren in Indonesia seem to be well colored the history of Islamic education in Indonesia. Nevertheless boarding schools with different strengths, it also would not be able to escape from all the criticism and shortcomings.

C. Dynamics Pesantren

A. Scientific and educational dynamics
At first establishment, the boarding school is a very simple learning media. There is no classification of the class, no curriculum, nor is there a standard rule in it. As a medium of religious learning, there is never a contract or a demand for students to kiai mengkajikan a book, let alone regulate in detail the materials are going to be taught. It all depends on the kiai as the axis of pesantren learning system. Starting from the schedule, methods, and even kitabyang want taught, all the authority of a kiai in full. [11]

Unlike other educational institutions which melakukanperekrutan students at certain times, schools are always opened the door wide open for paa prospective students at any time. Not only that, the boarding school is also not specify the age limit for students. Anyone at any time and in a desire for pushing into the schools, the kiai will always welcome it.

Two well-known model of learning at the beginning of the establishment of boarding schools is a model of learning systems and the classical non wetonan sorogan system. Wetonan system / bandongan is a study conducted by kiai followed by santrinya with no age limit or measure of intelligence. This model of learning systems, reportedly a method derived from the learning patterns of Arab scholars. A custom study conducted in the Masjid al-Haram. In this system, a kiai read the book, while the students are each holding their own with a briefing book for the teacher or define mengesahi Yellow Book.

Wetonan another study, study sorogan done one by one, in which an advanced students individually read the kiai to be corrected before the truth. At this sorogan learning, allowing students to a kiai berdialo with the issues that are taught. Unfortunately a lot of time consuming and inefficient, so that students are taught to senior students only.

In essence, the traditional pattern, the level of science being taught a lot depends on the scientific lbih kiai, the students receive and the type of book that is used. The weakness of this system is the absence of a clear perjenjangan and steps that must be diikui by students. There is also no separation between the old students beginners and students. Even a kiai only repeat a course to teach the book santrinya. [12]

In the seventeen century, pesantren learning materials olehmateri-matter dominated ketahuidan. Indeed, at that time teaching monotheism and ketasaufan ranks of the most dominant. Later, in line with many of the scholars who studied the sacred ground, the material he taught was varied.

Only in the early decades of this century, a new element in the form of a classical education system began to enter schools. Although some schools have used the Western curriculum, but also many boarding schools that refuse to use this system. For them, the classical system is taken from the influence of the schools established by the Dutch colonial government. Classes in the education system are a number of lessons given at the same time and space, with the same subjects. These educational institutions recognize the existence of a tiered classroom. And dipesantren known as madrasah system.

At first kiai in the pesantren is a single functionary. Since the founding of Islamic schools in this pesantren lungkkungan, required number of teachers to teach various types of new learning that not everything is controlled by the kiai. So that the teacher's role is important because of its capability of education outside the schools. And since then kiai is not a single functionary in the pesantren.

With the times, some schools began to include literacy classes sbagai one material being taught. There are skills raising, farming, sewing and other trades. On the other hand there are also schools that tend to keep pace with general knowledge. As reflected in the madrasas, called the "modern" by eliminating the learning patterns wtonan, sorogan and reading traditional books. Dnngan adopt modern curricula, schools prefer the latter aspects of language acquisition.

2. Influence and existence of pesantren
In the 18 th century, the name of pesantren as an educational institution of the people became so powerful, especially with respect to its role in spreading the teachings of Islam. At that time the establishment of boarding schools is always marked with a "value war" between the schools that will stand with the people around, who always won by the schools, so schools accepted to live in the community and then became a role model. [13] Even the presence of many schools with students who can revive the local economy so it can prosper surrounding communities.

Besides boarding school also has close ties with officials around. Gait kiai in quell the rioters received great attention from local officials to the king. Not infrequently, the Kings send their children to learn at a certain kiai, and as a form of respect, schools exempt from land tax. At that time famous for its miracle kiai, so often the king for help when facing royal mess. It is like the Great kiai Pakubuwono asking Muhammad Besari to help in the effort to block the enemy.

Influenced by the traditional Hindu caste which positions get the first monk, then so are the glasses Java community. People around Islamic ynag both kiai and students-have a high place in the stratification of society. In fact rarely marry the King of their children with the famous kiai, thus combining the two highest strata of the community as well. It is like Kiai Kasan Besari Pakubuwono II that became law.

Although the ascetic life of a remarkable place in the world of boarding time, however, can not be denied a tremendous role in the colonial period. Where seldom is a compromise with the colonial boarding school. Boarding has always been the basis expel colonial struggle, in which the young men who want to advance the battle kemedan slalu gathered therein to conduct "field and gemblengan". In this case we will not forget the case of Prince Diponegoro. Once mengakarnya role of the clergy / kiai in Javanese society-in particular, so that not infrequently the cause behind the myths of heroes struggle for independence. As the figure Kiai Seibi wind behind Jake Sembung heroic struggle. [14]

End of the 19th century, pesantren institutions is growing rapidly in the presence of non-cooperative attitude of the clergy against the policy of "ethical policy" of the Dutch colonial government. Non-cooperative attitude and silent Opposition clerics were later shown to establish schools in remote areas of the city to avoid the colonial government intervention as well as provide an opportunity for people who do not receive education.

As an educational institution that was very old, known as pesantren educational media that accommodate all types of strata of society. Furthermore Sedah boarding at that time make the institution of public education that includes not only teach religion. It could be said that boarding schools at the time the counter alternative institutions of colonial education which is reserved for the nobility alone.

Proven historical fact, how the schools are very intensive behavioral resistance to all the cultural and political ideology and fear it would undermine the ideology which they believe. Call it like the establishment of NU led by people boarding. This attitude is also demonstrated by the antagonism between those schools vis a vis the communist movement. The reason that echoed those schools that are dangerous to religious society movement in Indonesia. In the phase leading up to independence can also be seen how the kiai and students to resist an all-out culture 'saikere "the ninety-degree bend in honor of the Japanese sun as a god. Consequently famous kiai as Kh. Hashim Ash'ari in prison. [15]

Pesantren-ulama/kiai-santri usually have a fairly close relationship with the surrounding community. Even the pesantren tradition prevailing in the world is also true in the world outside the pesantren. It can happen to the programs so the invitation of the kiai to attend a specific event or from a boarding school alumni are spread-stricken areas to spread the knowledge that has been acquired dipesantren. As the Prophet's birthday anniversary, Nuzul al-Qur'an, al-ursy walimah, lectures and so forth.

Of mutual-pesantren kiai berkelindannya-students was certainly having a major influence in society. A boarding school students who are new to one year only, when I got home, dikampungnya would like a kiai diperlakkukan dii community where he lived. So often people because of their love of many schools to give sadaqah, infaq, jariyah waqaf and other charities with sincerity for the development of the pesantren.

3. Middle school in Flow of Globalization
Along with the passing flow of modernization, global politics have reconfiguration along the cross-cultural boundaries. various communities and countries that have similar cultures will hand in hand. While those in the different cultures will separate on its own.

Faced with globalization and the strong threat of a clash of civilizations, it is impossible pesantren still persist with the old learning patterns. Demands of the global community is professionalism, mastery of science, technology and a high work ethic. So because that's the nature of professionalism and mastery of technology and knowledge of standards, is required at boarding school. If the schools would not have to get ready to be crushed by the pace of the times, people leave because it was outdated and unsuitable for use. Because boarding schools were expected to be more adaptive to the development kamajuan times. On that basis pesantrean opportunities for Islamic education institutions that will create complete human beings will be more open. [16]

If we correlate the clash of civilizations as Huntington predicted, then the real conflict is most easily spread and very important and dangerous is not a conflict between social classes, between classes of kiai with the poor or between groups of other economic forces, but the conflict between those who have different ethnic cultures. Disputes between tribal and ethnic conflicts-in-civilization will always happen.
In that case there are some things that need to be a world record of pesantren, namely:
  • The first, conflict-prone place in the world of boarding school itself is a problem and the flow of religious issues. So, in anticipation of the conflict, schools should socialize the spirit of inclusiveness.
  • Second, dealing with the rapid flow of information continues to flow with a wide range, lifestyle and culture has to offer. So, inevitably, the boarding schools have to prepare mentally, not easy to dissolve with great culture. Sekalligus not necessarily close to the culture of continuous attendance. Critical and creative is something that can not be denied.
  • Third, Huntington's predictions may be a conflict between civilizations is true, but it also did not rule out the possibility that conflict can be avoided. One way is to mobilize the community to bridge creativity and facilitate the relationship between the various different communities. Thus be able to bind emotional feelings between them and finally able to minimize conflict and role must be able to be done by the schools.

Closing .. References .. Foonote
D. Cover
Spent in boarding school as the oldest Islamic institution in Indonesia that was established by the scholars (Kiai: Java). Boarding school was established in order to educate people to understand and practice Islam, religious moral pentignya dengnan emphasized as a way of life. The oldest sense, because the boarding school is an institution that has long lived and still exist to this day despite the many changes of form the beginning of the establishment of a variety of fields. Even schools have become a deep part of living systems most Muslims in Indonesia and also color the dynamics of the Indonesian nation.

So we wrote this paper, may be beneficial and an input means for education, especially schools, primarily as a discussion on the subject of Islamic Education in National Education Systems. I surrender myself to God, hoping always get taufik and guidance from him. And Allaah knows best.



REFERENCES

Ali, Fahry and Bahtiar Effendy, Spreads New Road, Reconstruction of Thoughts of the New Order Indonesia. New York: Mizan, 1990.

Daulay, Haidar's son. Dynamics of Islamic Education. New York: Citapustaka, 2004.

________________, Islamic Education, National Education System In Jakarta: Prenada Media, 2004.

Dhofier, Zamakhsari, Tradition School, Life Pandang Shtudi about Kiai. New York: LP3ES, 1994.

Faiqah, Nyai, Agents of Change in boarding school. New York: Kucica, 2003.

Kafrawi, Study Renewal of Education Boarding Schools For Business Formation and Development Work Achievement of National Unity. London: Pine Beautiful, 2004.

Haedani, Amin et al, Panorama, Horizon Islamic School in Modern. London: Diva Books, 2004.

Hamzah, Amir, Education and Teaching Reform of Islam, Noble Offset, Jakarta, 1989.

Karim, Rush, Islamic Education in Indonesia in Social Transformation. London: Tiara Discourse, 1991.

Prawiranegara, Alamsyah Queen, Development of Religious Education, Religious Affairs. Indonesia, Jakarta.

Soemarjan, Selo, Social Change in Yogyakarta, Gajahmada Press, New York: tp

Supriyadi, Kiai, Priyai in Transition. Surakarta: Chakra Library, 2001.

The author team, The Nu's, Wali Songo Ahlussunnah al-Jama'ah. London: CV Wicaksana, 1990.

Footnote

[1] Prof. Dr. H. Daulay son Haidar, MA, The Dynamics of Islamic Education (New York: Citapustaka, 2004), p. 113.

[2] Dra. Faiqah, M. Hum, Nyai, Agents of Change in Islamic School (New York: Kucica, 2003), p. 146-147.

[3] Kafrawi, Study Renewal of Education Boarding Schools For Business Formation and Development Work Achievement of National Unity (London: Pine Beautiful, 2004), p. 17.

[4] Ibid, p. 17.

[5] Fahry Bahtiar Ali and Effendy, Spreads New Road, Reconstruction Thought The New Order Indonesia (London: Mizan, 1990), p. 31.

[6] Prof. Dr. H. Daulay son Haidar, MA, Islamic Education, the National Education System (New York: Prenada Media, 2004), h.26.

[7] Selo Soemarjan, Social Change in Yogyakarta, Gajahmada Press, New York, H. 278.

[8] Amir Hamzah, Education and Teaching Reform of Islam, Noble Offset, Jakarta, 1989, p. 47.

[9] Alamsyah Prawiranegara Queen, Development of Religious Education, Religious Affairs. Indonesia, Jakarta, p. 41.

[10] Rush Karim, Islamic Education in Indonesia in Social Transformation (New York: Tiara Discourse, 1991), p. 134.

[11] Drs. H. Haedani Amin, M Ed et al, Panorama, Horizon Islamic School In Modern (London: Diva Books, 2004), p. 80.

[12] Ibid, p. 82.

[13] Zamakhsari Dhofier, Tradition School, Shtudi about Kiai Pandang Life (New York: LP3ES, 1994) p.9.

[14] Supriyadi, Kiai, Priyai in Transition (Surakarta: Chakra Library, 2001).

[15] Tim Composer, the Nu's, Wali Songo Ahlussunnah al-Jama'ah (London: CV Wicaksana, 1990) p. 35.

[16] Haidar, Islamic Education .., h. 36.

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