Aneka Ragam Makalah

Ethics

Sense of ethics or moral ethics is usually called a rational picture of the nature and basis of the correct actions and decisions and the principles that determine the claim that the actions and decisions are morally commanded or forbidden. Ethics is also a moral habit and disposition properties that contain values ​​that are formed in the behavior and customs istiadat.Oleh therefore the study of ethics has always placed special emphasis on the definition of ethical concepts, justification or assessment of the moral decisions, as well as distinguish between actions and Good and bad decisions.

Physically, there is a healthy man, and some are disabled, some are blind, deaf, paralyzed, and other shortcomings that are physical. But can we say that these bodily deficiencies also indicate a deficiency in terms of spiritual and personality. Socrates, for example, a famous Greek philosopher, who is sometimes equated with the prophet, was a very bad way. But the ugliness is not considered defects. Or Abu al-'Ala Mu'arra and Taha Husain, who live in the present is the blind. [1] What is their behavior as well as bad performance, or whether they have a personality flaw?. It is wrong to consider the spiritual depends on the physical. Every human being who look good in terms of bodily uncertain behavior or have a good temperament. this material shows that the assessment of a person that does not depend on the physical aspect.

In this life, we are often fooled by people who look good so we thought, and renamed it as well. On television and other mass media, ever mentioned: a tutor who have the heart to "ravish" disciples daughter was a child, or an apparatus involved in the robbery, and officials which is a "model community" involved in corruption cases and collusion, as well as other examples.

If you narrowed down the problem into an Islamic society, and we simply state actors above actions are Muslims, then the question arises: whether the offender is not aware that Islam has taught guidance guidance-called science of morality?, If he understood that the teachings of Islam there morality, then why he is still doing a bad action?.

Based on the above, then the problem can be divided into two: first that he did not understand the behaviors that were in accordance with the guidance of Islamic morality. Secondly, he knows it, but do not practice it because of his understanding of the purpose and wisdom contained in the guidance-guidance is still limited. From this it can be seen that moral guidance-guidance that contains the behavior of Muslims, was not only a "fast food" that can be eaten directly without the need to be studied and thought, what ingredients are contained in it, whether the food is in accordance with the conditions of his body and do not bring harm to his health.

Therefore, morality, as a product ready to be, it still needs to be rethought, reviewed and understood the purposes contained therein. Here, philosophy and morality is important to be reassessed. Not to undermine the existing order, but to correct it so that it feels more meaningful guidance.

In a "friendly society NU Rally North Sumatra" which was held in Medan, Masdar F. Mas'udi, once explained about the beard. According to him, that the Holy Prophet., Telling Muslims that a Muslim beard looks so dignified with a bushy beard, those non-Muslims would put dignity and respect. But these orders are less suited to the Malay race (in particular average Indonesian people are small and not hairy), because if a Malay is not bushy beard (aka beard only seven pieces), then it will not cause the authority to him, even for those who see it will be something funny and silly. So said Masdar.

The above example problems related to ethics or moral philosophy, that is how we can find and view the values ​​that are good for life. As one branch of philosophy, ethics began to be discussed by the Greek philosophers to the modern age. Socrates is a philosopher who first put forward; to what human beings actually live, how to actual human beings should behave in looking at themselves and life, and looking at the values ​​that must be executed in this life that gave birth to the concepts can be realized in practical life. From here, the ethical tradition also continues to be a discussion that does not escape from the study of classical Muslim philosophers to develop the ethical concepts of Greek heritage with key principles contained in the teachings of Islam.

By definition, ethics or moral philosophy is commonly called a rational picture of the nature and basis of the correct actions and decisions and the principles that determine the claim that the actions and decisions are morally commanded or forbidden. [2] Ethics is also a moral habits and the nature of the disposition which contains the values ​​that form in the behavior and customs. [3] Therefore, the study of ethics has always placed special emphasis on the definition of ethical concepts, justification or assessment of the moral decisions, as well as distinguishing between the actions and decisions are good and bad .

In Islam, the concepts of moral, religious and individual and social behavior has actually been found in sacred texts, but does not contain ethical theories in raw form, although it forms the whole ethos of Islam. So how do I remove these values ​​become very important in the study of Islamic ethics. Therefore, the theologians and philosophers took their respective positions in the authority of al-Qur'an dig to support their theoretical statements in taking the values ​​contained in the revelation.

The early Muslim philosophers in the study of ethics, whether Neo-Platonist like al-Farabi, Ibn Rushd's Aristotelian like, or a Platonic as Abu Bakr al-Razi, located in a different position with the theologians who depart from the text of revelation. Even if they are not stupid or deliberately deny the authority of the Koran, but they are faithful to the rules of philosophical arguments that have been handed down by Greek philosophy. Discussion of ethics Muslim philosophers are often decorated with the arguments of al-Qur'an as ways of Muslim writers generally, but specifically in the dictum, dictum that strengthen their conclusions. So to distinguish between the two, to the theologians of the sacred text is the main justification, whereas for the philosophers are common. [4]

THE PROBLEM OF TERMS: Ethics, Morals, and Morals

Ethics is a term derived from the Greek word ethos which means customs. [5] As a branch of philosophy, the ethics and depart from the logical conclusion in order to determine the ratio of the same size and agreed on a deed, whether good or bad deeds, right or wrong and deserved or not deserved to be done.

New Masters in Pictorial Encyclopaedia says: ethichs science of moral philosophy is concerned not with fact, but with values; not with caracter of, but the ideal of human conduct. [6] (Ethics is the science of moral philosophy, not about facts, but about values, not about the nature of human action, but about the idea).

Some think that the same moral ethics. Similarities do exist, because they discuss the pros and cons of human behavior. The purpose of ethics in the philosophical idea is to get the same for all people in every time and place with the size of good behavior and bad as far as can be known by the common mind. However, in an effort to achieve that objective, ethical difficulties, because the views of each group in the world of good and evil have the size or different criteria. Each group has its own conception. [7]

The word morality, derived from the Arabic jama 'of which, according lughat khuluqun defined character, temperament, behavior and character. Word contains the aspects of the relationship with the words khalqun meaning of events, as well as closely related to the Creator, which means the creator, and creature which means created. Formulation of character arising as a medium that allows the existence of good relations between the creature creator and the creature with the creature. [8]

While the word moral comes from the Latin word mores, which means the plural of mos customs. In the Indonesian language, translated the meaning of moral decency. The definition of moral is in accordance with the ideas commonly accepted human action, which is good and reasonable. So according to the measures that act by generally accepted in certain circumstances and has been institutionalized in a society.

The third term on the many terms used to express the same meaning or nearly the same. The researchers are aware of a lot of mention of ethics as a moral or ethical character as well. Moral philosophy called moral philosophy and so on. The terms on which its meaning has remained essentially generalized distinction, because in terms of semantics can be seen that each word has essentially the meaning or significance distinct characteristics that distinguish it from other words. Because if there are two or more words, has the same meaning there will be pemubaziran in the language.

In order to distinguish it be known that the set of ethics starts from something the size of the common mind, not of religion. Here lies the difference with a view of morality in Islam. In the view of Islam, the science of morality is a science that teaches what is good and bad based on the teachings of Allah and His Messenger. Ethical teachings of Islam according to the nature of the mind and thoughts straight. While the difference between morals and ethics, that ethics is more theoretical, while the more practical moral.

If we can draw a line between moral and ethical, the moral is normative rules (in the language of Islam is called morals) which applies in a given society are limited by space and time. Application of moral order in everyday life in a particular society into the field of anthropological study, being ethical is a field study of philosophy. Moral reality in the lives of people who terjernihkan through the critical study (critical studies) is the region that dibidangi by ethics. So the critical study of morality into ethical territory, so the moral is none other than material objects rather than ethics. [9]

Different from ethics (moral philosophy), then the character is intended as a 'package' or 'finished product' normative-binding, which must be implemented and realized in the everyday life of a Muslim, without the need to question and investigate the critical first .

Morals or morality is a set of values ​​is 'ready' and 'ready-made' without coupled, even avoiding critical studies. While the ethics on the contrary, served to critically question the formulas of the past that have been agglomerate and crystallize in a layer of society. [10]

In the Indonesian language, in addition to absorbing the terms ethics, morals and character, also used some words that the meaning and the same or similar purpose, namely for ethics, morals, manners, courtesy, manners, temperament and behavior or conduct.

ETHICS IN AN Al-Qur

As noted at the outset that the Koran contains the values ​​that ultimately form the ethos of Islamic ethical system. But not in raw form, because the sacred text contains a lot of interpretation. Terms in the Qur'an regarding the ethical issues will be the focus of this discussion. Of course not everything can be described. There are some things that are considered the most touching in the ethical concepts such as the use of the word al-Khayr al-birrr, al-qisth, al-doing good, and some other words will be found in the Qur'an and the basics of forming a Islamic ethics.

In Islam, the use of the words above shows that the main concepts in the Qur'an is actually derived from the concept of God's infinite justice and environmental ethics that the concept of sanctity of every human being is only a dim reflection or imitation of a highly- imperfect, of the divinity itself, or which refer to the specific response obtained from the divine deeds. [11] Here, a Muslim is required to mimic as much as possible ethical stance of God, because in fact God is the source of all ethical as stated in the sacred texts of the Koran.

Many experts find it difficult to categorize the words in the Qur'an related to the concept of moral and religious ethics, such as: al-Khayr al-birr, al-qisth, al-iqsath, al-'adl, al-haqq , al-ma'ruf and al-taqwa. Good deeds are commonly called shalihat, while bad deeds are called sayyiat. Sayyiat act commonly called ITSM or wizr the sense of sin or crime that originally was a burden. [12]

Terms on the basis of the Muslims towards the development of moral concepts, the so-called "morality skriptual". The forms of the practice of these terms are also described in the Qur'an and each has its consequences. Shalihat deeds will bring people to the consequences to the doer of good deeds sayyiat and will also bring the perpetrators to the effect that can be detrimental and burdensome to himself.

SOME ETHICAL ISSUES

Prior to entering into discussions or issues related to ethics, it is necessary to know the type or characteristics that can allow us to see the concepts of Muslim thinkers associated with the concept of ethics. Majid Fakhry explains the characteristics of Islamic ethics by dividing it into two types, namely: theological ethics and philosophical ethics.

Type of theological ethics in which there are three major streams: (a) the rational flow of which was pioneered by figures Qadariah and Mu'tazilah, (b) semi-rationalist and voluntarist founded by Abu Hasan al-Ash'ari who tend to be more subject to on authority of scripture rather than rational rules. Adherents of this flow is al-Baqilaini, al-Baghdadi, al-Juwayni, al-Ghazali and Fakhr al-din al-Razi. The third stream is the anti-rationalist (zahiriyah), which requires that the principal source of scriptural truth as interpreted literally. His characters include Ibn Hazm and Ibn Taymiyyah.

While initially influenced ethical philosophical schools of Greek philosophy. The works of the moral was first written by al-Kindi and al-Razi reflect the influence of the philosophy of Plato and Socrates as shaped by the Cynic and Stoic thought. In the writings of philosophers such as al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, and Yahya ibn 'Adi, the influence of Platonism is more felt in their writings and political dimension began to appear at this time, where previously none existed. In the work ethic Miskawayh, serves as the foundation of Platonism elaboration ethical system in which the strings Aristotelian, Stoic Platonism and Neo meet, which may be under the influence of the wrong Porphiry comments about the work of the famous Aristotelas Nicomachean ethics derived from source- Arab sources. However, here also the political dimension is reduced. Political dimensions reappeared in full in the writings of Nasr al-Din al-Tusi which describes much better idea of ​​organic unity between politics and ethics than its predecessor. [13]

As far as can be known about the key points of the discussion of ethics, below will be able to see some of the views of Muslim thinkers, particularly the philosopher-in some ways like a mental problem, the behavior (morality), the good and evil.

A. Soul

A discussion of the soul much discussed by philosophers Muslims from classical to modern times. From al-Kindi to Morteza Motahhari, mental problems still a warm conversation. There are considered the same as the spirit or soul lives, there are also sets it apart, does life also means passion, whether it is also common, each expert has a different opinion because in Islam God is the secret of life issues. For certain people do not know the true nature, people only know a little information through the sacred texts. [14]

The human soul is the secret of God contained in His servant and to the greatness of God in His creation and the human puzzle that has not been resolved and probably will not be solved satisfactorily. It is the soul into various sources of knowledge and is not limited, but not yet known with any confidence nature. Soul into the sources of a clear mind, but most of the thoughts of the soul overwhelmed by the darkness and secrecy, although the first man since the days until now is still always try and investigate what is essentially allied with soul and body. Mental problems in the study of ethics focuses on the introduction of the soul so that it dug its potential to deliver good mental condition and the delivery of good deeds, in accordance with nature and the will of the soul of humanity.

The Muslim philosophers, almost all agreed that the study of ethics, the basic capital that must be known in advance the knowledge of the soul. Any behavior or act of birth is a reflection of his mental condition. Good behavior will be born from a healthy state of mind, while bad behavior is the cause of the poor condition of the soul as well.

Al-Kindi explained, that in man, there is a spirit or soul that has three power or strength. Lust of power centered in the abdomen, the brave, based on the chest, and the power of thinking is centered on the head. Power of thinking is what is called reasonable. [15] A person who can master these three powers and can control the direction of either the person has been successful in actualizing the soul in his life.

Special attention to the problems people have dilakukukan by Ibn Sina, one of his book is the Proceedings of al-Quwa al-Nafsiah have discussed about the power of the soul with an overview of philosophy. He has been broadly divided into psychological aspects of two terms. First, the physical aspect, which talked about the various souls (souls of plants, animal life and human spirit), the division of the virtues,; the human soul, senses, etc. and other discussions are usually included in the definition actual science of the soul. Second, the metaphysical aspect, which talks about being haikikat soul, soul ties with the body and immortality of the soul. [16]

Al-Ghazali explains that the soul can be trained, controlled and changed the character of the noble and praiseworthy. Each tumbih nature of the human heart and transmits the result to its members. Someone who wants to write good, at first had to force her to write a good habit. If this habit is long, then the force is not needed anymore because moved by the soul and heart. [17]

Ibn Miskawayh, a Muslim philosopher known for his book al-Tahdheeb Morals explains that the soul is something that is not the body, nor a part of the body and is not material ('aradh). If the "soul" is getting a lot of bodily things, the more perfect soul, if soul is free from the senses, the spirit grows stronger and more able to assess the complete and correct and ma'qulat a simple catch. This is the clearest argument that the nature and substance of the soul is different from the nature of rough container, and that the soul is a substance that is more noble and have a higher nature than all the objects that exist in nature. [18]

He further explained that the soul consists of three faculties or sections: faculty related to thinking, seeing and considering the reality of all things, the faculty that is expressed in anger, courage, especially courage to face danger, and want power, respect yourself and want a variety of honors ; faculty who make our own lust, and eating, craving the delicious food and beverages, intercourse, and plus other sensual pleasures. These three faculties are different from each other. This can be known from the very fact of developing one of the three faculties, and damaging others. One of the three could negate the actions of others, or sometimes considered as three lives, and sometimes as three faculties of the soul.

Thinking faculty (al-al-natiqah Quwwah) called the faculty of the king, while the organ is the brain uses. Faculty of animal lust syahwiyah called faculties, and organs are used is the heart. The faculty of anger (al-al-ghadhabiyyah Quwwah) called the faculty of the beast, and organs are used is called the heart. [19]

2. Behavior (morality)

Intense Muslim thinkers to the discussion of morality is the Al-Ghazali. Ethical theories contained in the book Mizan al-'Amal and religious ethics in the work Ihya' 'Ulum al-Din. In the books of his book he describes that person's behavior is "a painting he thought" because of habituation, habituation to the behavior that manifests or morals. He explained that the human personality can basically accept the establishment, but rather to good than evil. If you then get a bad man, then became wicked behavior. Vice versa if you get good, then it becomes okay behavior. [20]

Virtue is a habit that is fixed and there is a soul in man which is easily and do not need to cultivate thinking and actions of human behavior. If the behavior was born beautiful and laudable it is called good morals, and if the birth was a nasty behavior, dinamakanlah bad morals. He further explained that good character can hold a balance between the three powers in man, namely the power of thinking, the power of lust, anger and strength. [21]

Morteza Motahhari explained that human actions can be divided into three types:
A. moral act, which at the level of animals.
2. immoral act, which is level with the animal.
3. antimoral act, which under the animal. [22]

If a person thinks only of himself like an animal, it is not moral, but immoral. But, sometimes in his selfish, he got a mental illness, and humanity is for kehewanannya and lead to suicide. The attitude of greed, tyranny, injustice, tyranny, and other bad attitudes will undermine the moral and humanitarian actions, so that people can fall into immoral deeds and antimoral.

While Ibn Bajjah [23] divide human actions to the two sections. The first part, is to act arising out of the back-instinct and other matters related thereto, whether near or far. The second part is the action that arises from thinking straight and will clean and high and this section called "acts of man."

The base difference between the two sections of Ibn Bajjah not act itself but rather the motive. To explain these two kinds of actions, it suggests someone who hit a rock, then he was injured, then he threw the stone. If he threw it in disgust because the stone had been hurt, then it is act of animal driven by instinct kehewanannya had dictated to him to destroy every case that bothered him.

If you throw a stone so it does not interfere with other people, not because it interests him, or angry not to do with the attacks, then this is the work of humanity. This last job that could be assessed in the field character, because, according to Ibn Bajjah, only the people who work under the influence of mind and justice alone, and had nothing to do with the animal side to him, that's all I can appreciate his actions and could be called the sky , and entitled to be discussed by Ibn Bajjah in his book. [24]

Everyone who wanted to subdue the animal on his terms, he is nothing but just have to start by implementing the terms of his humanity. In a state so, then the terms of the animal in him subject to the terms of the height of humanity, and one became a man with no drawbacks, because the shortage was caused disebabakan ketundukannya to instinct.

3. Good and Bad

In a matter of good and evil, Ibn 'Arabi uses the terms light and darkness that comes from the Zoroastrian. Being positive is the source of all goodness and being negative is the basis of all evil. Something that is considered bad because of one or several reasons [25], namely:
because one or another religion see it like that.
relative to the ethical principles or standards of practice adopted by community groups.
because of these things and act is contrary to the individual temperament
because of these things and actions that can not satisfy natural desires, moral or intellectual from an individual and so
because there is a deficiency or weakness

There are other bad categories of Ibn 'Arabi, the stupidity, lies, disharmony, irregularity, incompatibility of temperament, of sin and unbelief. In all there were shortages. Or some form of positive qualities which when added to things or actions we classify bad, will turn into good. Nothing bad, it's all good. In other words, the so-called bad it is a subjective reality, not objective reality. Even a good rose when contrasted with the bad will be subjective and relative. The only absolute is a form of pure goodness that is God.

Ibn 'Arabi explains the relativity of good and bad in other ways. Our assessment of the goodness and badness of things according to our knowledge is relative. We say things or act is bad, so ignorant of the existence of the hidden good in it. Each case has an external and internal aspects. On the internal aspect is the purpose of the creator and if we lay on the goal like that, we are prone to say that as a bad thing. Ibn 'Arabi mencontohkannya such as taking medication. Here is a case that looks bad, such as nausea caused by a sense of where the patient's drug abuse as a bad drug, because patients do not know. [26]

Miskawayh argues that goodness is a thing that can be achieved by human effort to carry out his will and with matters related to the purpose of human creation. Whereas ugliness is a good inhibitor of human reach, where the bottleneck is in the form of willpower and effort, or a form of laziness and reluctance to seek the good. [27]

He further divides the principal types of goodness and evil. The principal types of virtues: wisdom, modest, brave, generous, and fair. While the reverse of the above is a good deed, stupid, greedy, cowardly, and despotic.

Based human behavior can be divided into three groups. That there is a good man from home. This group will not be inclined to evil, though however, this class will not change and will still be inclined either. This group is a minority. Native groups who are evil are the majority, would not at all inclined to goodness. Among this class there are classes that can be switched to the good and evil, because education and environmental influences. [28]

Miskawayh not elaborate on who those people that fall into three categories. But implicitly, perhaps we can say that the prophets and apostles and those who glorified and sanctified of God, into the first category, namely a first class human being and will not be inclined to evil. While the second and third groups are categories of common and common man.

CONCLUSION

A. Ethics is a rational picture of the nature and basis of the correct actions and decisions and the principles that determine the claim that the actions and decisions are morally commanded or forbidden.

2. Islamic ethics is a discussion that was developed as a blend of Greek ethics and ethics in Islam is derived from the sacred texts. The combination has produced a new form of scientific disciplines are called moral philosophy, in which morality as practical concepts become more enlightened by the study of ethics.

3. The Muslim philosophers, almost all agreed that the study of ethics, the basic capital that must be known in advance the knowledge of the soul.

4. Virtue is a habit that is fixed and there is a soul in man which is easily and do not need to cultivate thinking and actions of human behavior.

5. Goodness is a thing that can be achieved by human effort to carry out his will and with matters related to the purpose of human creation. Whereas ugliness is a good inhibitor of human reach, where the bottleneck is in the form of willpower and effort, or a form of laziness and reluctance to seek the good.

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References and Footnote
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
  • A.E. Affifi, Filsafat Mistis Ibnu ‘Arabi, terjemahan: Sjahrir Mawi, Gaya Media Pratama, Jakarta, 1995
  • Ahmad Amin, Ethika (Ilmu Akhlak), alih bahasa: Farid Ma’ruf, Bulan Bintang, Jakarta, 1995
  • Amin Abdullah, Falsafah Kalam di Era Postmodernisme, Pustaka Pelajar, Yogyakarta, 1995
  • Hamzah Ya’kub, Etika Islam, Diponegoro, Bandung, 1996
  • Harun Nasution, Filsafat & Mistisme dalam Islam, Bulan Bintang, Jakarta, 1973
  • Lewis Mulford Adam, New Masters Pictorial Encyclopaedia, A Subsidiary of Publishers, New York, 1965
  • Madjid Fakhry, Etika Dalam Islam, terj. Zakiyuddin Baidhawy, Pustaka Pelajar, Yogyakarta, 1996
  • Murtadha Muthahhari, Manusia Sempurna, terjemahan: M. Hashem, Lentera, Jakarta, 1994
  • Richard G. Hovannisian (editor), Ethics In Islam, Undena Publications, California, 1985
  • Toshihiko Izutsu, Etika Beragama Dalam Qur’an, terj. Mansurddin Djoely, Pustaka Firdaus, Jakarta, 1995


Footnote


[1] Murtadha Muthahhari, Manusia Sempurna, terjemahan: M. Hashem, Lentera, Jakarta, 1994, h. 15
[2]Madjid Fakhry, Etika Dalam Islam, terj. Zakiyuddin Baidhawy, Pustaka Pelajar, Yogyakarta, 1996, h. xv
[3] Richard G. Hovannisian (editor), Ethics In Islam, Undena Publications, California, 1985, h. 18
[4] Ibid., h. xvii
[5] Hamzah Ya’kub, Etika Islam, Diponegoro, Bandung, 1996, h. 13
[6] Lewis Mulford Adam, New Masters Pictorial Encyclopaedia, A Subsidiary of Publishers, New York, 1965, h. 560
[7] Hamzah Ya’kub, Op cit.,
[8] Ibid., h. 11
[9] Amin Abdullah, Falsafah Kalam di Era Postmodernisme, Pustaka Pelajar, Yogyakarta, 1995, h. 147
[10] Ibid.,
[11] Toshihiko Izutsu, Etika Beragama Dalam Qur’an, terj. Mansurddin Djoely, Pustaka Firdaus, Jakarta, 1995, h. 27-28
[12] Madjid, h. 2
[13] Madjid Fakhry, Etika Dalam Islam, terj. Zakiyuddin Baidhawy, Pustaka Pelajar, Yogyakarta, 1996, h. xix
[14] Dalam al-Qur’an dikatakan jiwa (ruh/nafs-jiwa) menjadi sumber hidup dan diambil dari tuhan (lihat: QS. Shad: 71-72) dan bahwa jiwa itu merupakan rahasia Tuhan pada makhluknya, yang oleh karena itu jika manusia tidak bisa mengetahui hakekatnya, maka tidaklah mengherankan. (lihat: QS. al-Isra’: 85) al-Qur’an juga menginformasikan tentang “jiwa penegur” (al-nafs al-lawwamah) yang tidak suka kepada perbuatan-perbuatan rendah (QS. al-Qiyamah: 1-2) kemudian tentang tingkatan jiwa tertinggi, yaitu “jiwa yang tenang” (al-nafs al-muthmainnah) (QS. al-Fajr: 27) dan tempat kembali semua jiwa adalah Tuhan (QS. al-Zumar: 42). Ahmad Hanafi, Pengantar filsafat Islam, (Jakarta: Bulan Bintang, 1996) h. 121
[15] Harun Nasution, Filsafat & mistisme dalam Islam, Bulan Bintang, Jakarta, 1973, h. 18
[16] Ahmad Hanafi, Pengantar Filsafat Islam, Bulan Bintang, Jakarta, 1996, h. 126
[17] Hamzah Ya’kub, h. 92
[18] Ibn Miskawaih, Menuju Kesempurnaan Akhlak, terjemahan. Helmi Hidayat, Mizan, Bandung, 1997, h. 36
[19] Ibid., h. 43-44
[20] Hamzah Ya’kub., h. 91
[21] Ibid., h. 92
[22] Muthahhari., h. 85
[23] Ahmad Hanafi, h. 159
[24] Ibid.,
[25] A.E. Affifi, Filsafat Mistis Ibnu ‘Arabi, terjemahan: Sjahrir Mawi, Gaya Media Pratama, Jakarta, 1995, h. 215-217
[26] Ibid., h. 218
[27] Ibn Miskawaih., h. 40-41
[28] Hamzah Ya’kub., h. 90
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