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EVOLUTION OF RELIGION

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The evolution of religion in simple language is a gradual change of religion. Evolution is a phenomenon that appears on the beliefs or religion, to make it more acceptable adaftatif and, more autonomous and complex, to be more acceptable to society adherents. This phenomenon is referred to by experts as the evolution of religion. Evolution is a phenomenon that appears on the beliefs or religion, to make it more acceptable adaftatif and, more autonomous and complex, to be more acceptable to society adherents. This phenomenon is referred to by experts as the evolution of religion. 

Man as a creature of logic would have looked different from the conclusion that the phenomena produced by others. When a phenomenon that is considered beyond the limits of human strength appears, then it has been called a god, but those that are more intelligent who thinks that there is something powerful for that phenomenon.

Our initial assumption of man as a civilized human being will certainly change in religion, both in terms of the regularity of its rituals and other religious-order. Humans will continue to become more complex bekembang culture, of all dimensions, including religion. Whether the change is worse than before or to be better.

What is the religion of evolution? How to shape the evolution of religion? Are religions such as Islam samawai also evolved? How do people end up believing one God or more, and how it proceeds, and changed for a specific purpose is to be tested are described in this paper ..

B. ORIGIN OF RELIGION 

Is religion always comes up in the community?, Sociology would answer "yes", because religion is a human inclination to believe in the power beyond human power, and it is a natural human instinct.

How does that instinct come and try to be a religion described by some sociologists. As Dada Kahmad put forward the theory that the origin of religion [1]

I. Soul Theory.

At first humans to see the things around him to believe that the universe is populated by matter as they see and feel. The next man began to believe in the existence of jinn and spirits, until they were to think that the world is not inhabited only material substance but also by things that are immaterial.

They thought that the spirit and the soul is eternal and has a life force that can maintain or destroy it. Finally, they also considered a god and worship him.

II. Common Boundary theory.

Human reason can not explain all the symptoms that occur in this world, while people get used to solving problems with his wits, though human reason has always evolved along with technological developments, but still there are things that can not be explained by reason. [2]

Therefore, people want something that can explain things that can not be explained by reason. First man to use magic, but so they also realize that it can not answer all of them until finally they began to seek religion.

III. Crisis Theory in Life.

When a man has great things in life that form of tau unfortunate disaster, death, illness and other material can not be prevented by either property, they also began to look to religion as a cooling-off efforts in crisis situations.

IV. Public sentiment theory.

According to this theory of religion emerged as a result of vibration of the human soul a sense of emotion as a social creature. Religion is not born of the notion of a supernatural being but as a unified community.

V. Extraordinary strength theory.

Is a form of preanimisme in religion, which believes that these phenomena that appear in nature such as rain, wind is a god worthy of worship.

VI. Rev Theory.

That religion comes from God's command which He revealed through his envoy, like religion is known as the divine religions.

C. EVOLUTION OF RELIGION 

I.Teori Evolution of Religion.

Evolution is the change gradually and in stages. [3] While religion is a set, symbolic and sacred paktek based on the idea. [4] The definition of sacred is related to the mystery of things well that was amazing and scary. [ 5]

The evolution of religion in the plain language of religion is changing gradually. According RNBellah that the evolution of religion is the process of increasing differentiation and complexity for more beradaftasi to its environment, so that religion could be more acceptable and more autonomous than ever before. [6]

Who or what is evolving?. Bellah continues that the evolution is a religion as symbol system. [7] This symbol is required because the core of religious krilaku can not be expressed, then to turn the matter over the sacred symbols of religion then be made. [8]

The definition of religion as a system of symbols are devices that religion became a symbol of religious identity. Such as prayer in Islam, church in Christianity, the fire in the Zoroastrian religion.

As according to religion as a system of symbols Greefitz is [9]:

A. public order, it tends to change over time, at least in certain cases to a more differentiated and complex and profound. Such as the notion that wearing a turban in the prayer is no longer a religion but rather as agents of outside religions. When this happens the religion of Islam has evolved. Or beliefs as well as when married to the pastor taboo in Christianity has collapsed, and the adherents of this religion have changed the belief that it is not religiously forbidden.

2. religious conceptions of the nature of the actions of religious actors. As the concept of tax changes in Indonesia to be one part of the zakat, or the belief that the god in the sense that given the public has been able to replace the position of prayer.

3. But the two theories are not yet implicit, because the religion itself there is a change in the assumption that real gods who, like the notion that it is the god of rain and then mengkat be no force that could rain down. Is not it also an evolution?. Maybe things like this that are considered by Bellah as the evolution in the other dimension. Including socio-cultural dimension. [10]

II.Tahap-Stage Evolution.

As we pointed out the first time that evolution is a gradual makeover, religious meaning through certain stages in the change. Bellah reveals five stages usually passed by in the evolution of religion, this he concluded after studying several religions in Europe, India and China. He also admitted that this theory is the most common things that can be seen. [11]

Although he suggested five stages of evolution of the phase of primitive, archaic phase, historical phase, the phase of pre-modern and modern phase, but he also recognized that the tendency of experts to share them with even a 3 stage 4 stage is very reasonable, because in a certain phase beberpa almost -virtually no different. [12]

The confusion of this division according to experts is in part due to the similarity several phases, is most often combined with the phase of pre-modern phase of modern and primitive and archaic phase. [13] According to Bellah that this is actually pre-modern phase transition to a modern phase. With this basis we write the 4 stages.

A. primitive phase.

In this phase of human nature as likely to believe in a power greater than human strength. [14] Whether in the form of spirits or objects such as sky, mountains and other natural phenomena as well as earthquakes, drought and other. But primitive man did not worship these things because the assumption is not all right to be worshiped, like the wind that they would not worship if they have not seen how powerful the role of wind in their lives.

Religious practice in this phase is the identification and participation. Their ritual is to unite themselves with whom they worship without any intermediaries, all present joined berparsitipasi. Each trying to eliminate the distance by which they worship.

So in this ritual they pass through four stages, namely: [15]

persajian (offering), although it is unknown that whether it is the same as the offerings, sacrifices, or even that it is considered persajian persajian or intention to unite themselves.

Pengancuran (destruction), personal worship destroyed trying to be united with God.

Identity change (transformation), that the state together with a personal god he expects the new, new identity after the completion of the event.

Reincarnation (returncommunion), in which case he would be a better human being and perfect.

At this primitive stage of religious and social organization is one that is not separate. Religion also plays a role in the social. Then age and heredity is very important for religious leaders. [16]

2. phase of the archaic (old / ancient)

arkai basically a primitive period is not much different, that's the cause disagreements membagai expert in this period to two phases. many ways of being religious is a legacy of the primitive but more systematic and detailed. [17]

Typical illustration of this phase is the emergence of cult (which tersistimatisi peneyembahan), agamapun experts increasingly significant role. God they worship the less, such as lightning and rain god is one. Likewise, the phenomenon and other objects in the manner and process of the manifold.

Action archaic form of religious cult, where the difference of man as the subject of cult of the god as the object of much more clearly than the primitive religion. Because of this division, breakdown of communication with God is important in this period. [18]

The religious religious organization in this period also serves as a social organization. Assumption that the nobles are descended god made ​​the dual role of religious scholars is maintained. The king is the liaison to the god of this phase is a general trend.

In this phase, every clan of the public usually has its own cult, and apart from the others. Competition between the cult-cult can be interpreted as an effort and struggle to fight a good attitude towards the clan god or at least that god does not move to another clan.

3. historical phases.

It said historical phase is due to people about literacy. The most typical of this phase is a dualistic religion, the separation of the life world and the hereafter is not known at the previous phase. And elements of the afterlife keagamaanpun centered. A kind of Paradise and Hell are known at this stage.

So keagaaman action on this phase aims to find salvation hereafter. Berkurbanpun elements still exist but with new meaning, namely the search for the blessing of God, which alone with earlier bebeda expect rain, wind or other.

Historically tended to separate religion from the world, even when trying to combine a relatively even disagreement is not accepted.

4. premodern-modern phase

religious character of this phase is the disappearance of pen-strukturan world and the hereafter, though schools of dualism still exists but with a new makana that the two worlds can not be separated completely, safety can not be achieved by withdrawing from the world. Even this phase of the community in trying to balance between the two.

This phase of religious symbols centered on the direct relationship between the individual and transcendental reality, such beliefs are dressed for the salvation of the world and the hereafter.

Then act on this phase encompasses all of life, of course, this will be because the decline of some particular religious practice. And instead is the worship of God in every moment of life. The emphasis on a person's internal beliefs and ignore certain acts or practices.

One characteristic of religion in the modern phase is the emergence of secularism, [19] Secularism is the ideology that embraces keduniawaian or material, [20] is also a process to break away from religious control. [21]

Religion and modernization is a very interesting problem in sociology. Most of them argued that modernization has changed the outlook of the religious man.

The term refers to the modern meaning "now". [22] Meanwhile, according to royal Koentjoro that modernization is a conscious effort made ​​by an institution or country to adjust to the state of the world and his contemporaries. [23]

That religion is growing tendency to decline dualism arises, the falling value of the afterlife. People are more interested in world activity and does not depend on religious scholars to seek the truth.

Is Islam from birth to follow the stages of this evolution?. by Sayyid Qutub, the phase of the above or better known as the phase evolution should not be passed by every religion, and Islam is one of them. [24]

Indeed, if we look into the history of Islam and Muslims perdaban history and compare it with the stage of this evolution, we will find that since the inception of Islam can be said on the fourth stage, even the fourth stage of even this can not accurately describe Islam.

Why Islam did not evolve like the others?. Sayyid Qutub still think that this is because Islam is a divine religion. [25] It was not a logical answer to the science of sociology, but somehow it did not doubt, because it is impossible Muhammad as a human being can mensistimatiskan Islam is just as perfect in recent years that the other religions of this case proceeds through hundreds of years in each stage.



RELIGION IN OTHER D.EVOLUSI PENDAKATAN.

We have mentioned the theory of evolution according to Bellah, we will reveal some of the other theories that we consider to be simpler, such as:

Taylor argues that the evolution of religion from anymisme as the earliest form of religion and turned into a dynamism and a polytheism to a monotheism. [26]

As with the Mahmud Yunus who thought that religion was born out of shape and dynamism to anymisme from polytheism to monotheism. [27]

I. Anymisme and dynamism.

Most religious scholars argue that the dynamism than anymisme first appeared [28]. Primitive societies in walnya looking trees, the ocean is a god worthy of worship because it provides harm and benefit to their lives. As rain is expected and dreaded Mount Merapi. Merkapun worship.

These schools subsequently evolved to the belief that the actual events, phenomena and natural objects of the incident power is something behind the phenomenon or object. Assuming like that then they started mneyembah spirit (in the sense of being non-material or material that is fine) or a force that brings the earthquake, wind, which makes the fruit trees and so forth, then this dynamism also evolved into anymisme.

The loss of soil fertility, the rainy season the dry season is a testament to them that God is not settled and nomadic. [29]

II.Politheisme.

Primitive societies that believe in their strength or spirit basically worshiped many gods, the ruler of the gods of wind, sea, sun, moon and so they believe to be divine. But not all of them worshiped or at least they are often not the same god sauatu other gods. This is because the power of god is not the same, there are weak and there is strong.

Then the gods in their assumption that has the most power dahsyatlah worthy of worship, and they gave the name of god is in accordance with the functions, such as wind god, god of fertility and others. It makes them worship many different gods with each other. People who live by hunting would have to worship a tree for example, another case of life digurun would be more likely to worship their god of rain.

In poltheisme there is conflict between one god to another, such as drought god and god of rain, between Vishnu and Shiva. Also when the disaster of the confusion to god that what they have to ask. Through several stages of the human attempt to overcome these weaknesses, trying to find a more thorough explanation to the belief there is no conflict within him, until he came to the conclusion that there is only one god worthy of worship. Thus has evolved into a monotheistic religion.

III.Henotheisme and Monotheism

Monotheism is the religious who believe in and worship of one god and deny the existence of other gods they worship. While henotheisme is a religion that believe and worship one god while not denying the existence of other gods [30]. We consider that this is henotheime transition from polytheism to monotheism pure. Henotheisme confidence as there are in Greece.

When a belief or religion began to regard that there is no god worthy of worship and those that tidal feasible for several reasons, including losing in competition with other gods, or because the task has been completed, and so forth. When this assumption appears in a religion then it is likely to be the religion of pure monotheism.

Revealed religion is a religion that did not evolve to this stage, because the religion known to man since it has been perfect. Islam is the most perfect example of monotheistic religion revealed in all its dimensions.

But some divine religions also turned into polytheism, or by its adherents are still regarded as the concept of monotheism, but with a very unclear and ambiguous. The most appropriate example is the Christian religion which recognizes one God but worship three gods which they consider to be unity (trinity). [31]

The same thing was also expressed by Dada Kahmad, he divides the evolution of religion to the three levels, namely: [32]

The lowest is believed that there are spirits who occupy a place in humans, these creatures are able to do beyond the limits of human capabilities, such confidence is often called animism.

Next is, when people experience symptoms in the world, he considers that the symptoms of that god, but then he started to change the belief that symptoms were simply a manifestation of the real god.

The highest levels are marked by the emergence of community development levels in the country as well, so it's impact to the categorization of god, and to some tigkatan mebaginya, hinga later they realized that in fact other gods are manifestations of the god true emergency.

E.close

In theory put forward by Bellah shows that religion evolved with advances siring human culture and progress the way they think. But still primitive man could not believe god immaterial.

The notion that God is he who enjoy unlimited power over natural phenomena, and to bring the benefits of their misfortune or refuse to worship him.

And so it went growing little by little, change is what ultimately referred to as the evolution of religion. Experts do not agree in dividing the stages of evolution due to obscurity of the phase difference with the other.

Although several theories have been advanced but it is also the only things in the light of studies of several religions. And of course, evolution does not have to be passed by all religions.

By studying the evolution is again clearly visible feature of Islam. and this proves that religion is a religion of divine and perfect since lowered.
References and footnote
Bibliography

Department of Education, the Great Dictionary of Indonesian, Central library, Jakarta, 2001.

Dadang Kahmad, Sociology of Religion, Youth Rosda Work, London, 2000.

Daniel Saveri, Theories of Religion. Oxford Press, New York, 2000.

Elizabeth.K.nottingham, Religion and Society, trans Abd Muis, King Grapindo, Jakarta, 2000.

IJWSchools, Modernization: Introduction to the Sociology of Developing Countries Development, trans Sokadijo, Scholastic, London, 1991.

Harun Nasution, in terms of various aspects of Islam, Vol I, Jakarta, 1985.

_____________, Rational Islam, Mizan London, 1995.

Judistira.K.Garna, Anthropology of Religion, tp London, 1997.

Koentjoro Mentalitik Patrician Culture and Development, Scholastic, London, 1976.

Mahmud Yunus, Al-Adyan, Toha Putra, Semarang, 1987

Nurcholish Majid, Islam, Modernity And keindonesiaan, Mizan, London, 1998.

Roland Robertson, a team of translators, Analysis and Interpretation of Religion in Social, Eagle Press, London, 1998.

Sayyid Qutub, trans Yudian, Moral Evolution, Ikhlas, Surat, 1993.

Thomas, F, Odea, penerjmah teams, Sociology of Religion, Eagle Press, London, 1992

Walter H. Capps, Religious Studies in The Making Of Disciplin, Fortress Press, 1995.

Zakiyah Drajat, Comparative Religion, Earth Literacy, Jakarta, 1996.


[1] Dadang Kahmad, Sociology of Religion, Rosda Youth Work, London, 2000. Page 3.

[2] Daniel Saveri, Theories of Religion. Oxford Press, New York, 2000. Page 3.

[3] Department of Education, the Great Dictionary of Indonesian, Central library, Jakarta, 2001. case 310.

[4] Walter H. Capps, Religious Studies in The Making Of Disciplin, Fortress Press, 1995. page 17.

[5] Elizabeth.K.nottingham, Religion and Society, trans Abd Muis, King Grapindo, Jakarta, 2000. Page 8.

[6] Roland Robertson, trans Yudian, Analysis and Interpretation of Religion in Social, Eagle Press, London, 1998. page 17.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Elizabeth, op, cit. This 13.

[9] Ibid. the 309

[10] Ibid.

[11] Ibid.

[12] Ibid. case 315.

[13] Thomas, F, Odea, penerjmah teams, Sociology of Religion, Eagle Press, London, 1992. page 62.

[14] Mahmud Yunus, Al-Adyan, Toha Putra, Semarang, 1987. page 3.

[15] Rolan, op.cit. case 316.

[16] Ibid.

[17] Ibid.

[18] Ibid.

[19] IJWSchools, Modernization: Introduction to the Sociology of Developing Countries Development, trans Sokadijo, Scholastic, London, 1991. Page 1.

[20] Nurcholish Majid, Islam, Modernity And keindonesiaan, Mizan, London, 1998. Page 216.

[21] Harun Nasution, Rational Islam, Mizan London, 1995. It 188.

[22] Judistira.K.Garna, Anthropology of Religion, tp London, 1997. Page 4.

[23] Koentjoro Mentalitik Patrician Culture and Development, Scholastic, London, 1976. Case

[24] Sayyid Qutub, trans Yudian, Moral Evolution, Ikhlas, Surat, 1993.hal 93

[25] Ibid.

[26] Zakiyah Drajat, Comparative Religion, Earth Literacy, Jakarta, 1996. 94 things.

[27] Mahmud Yunus, op, cit. page 10.

[28] Harun Nasution, in terms of various aspects of Islam, Vol I, Jakrta, 1985. page 5.

[29] Ibid.

[30] Thomas, op, cit. page 26.

[31] M.Yunus, op, cit. case 48.

[32] Dada, opcit, p 20.

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