Aneka Ragam Makalah

Hadith the Prophet and the Companions

In Ulumul hadith, hadith the Prophet and the Companions is a significant discussion, the authenticity of hadith on the prophet and the companions are not in doubt. This paper will analyze how the actual tradition at the time of the prophet and the companions.

A. INTRODUCTION

Periodization of the history and the collection of Hadith have a longer period than experienced by the Al-Quran, which only takes a short relatife, which is about 15 years. Pengkodifikasian Hadith collection and will take approximately three centuries. What is meant by the hadith collection here Periodization is the phases that have been taken and experienced in the history of coaching and development of the Hadith, since the Prophet Muhammad was still alive until the realization of those books that can be witnessed today.

Hadith scholars and experts, variously split periodicity pengkodifikasian Hadith collection and grouping of data is based on differences in their history and their goals to be achieved. Preparation of the Hadith books of Hadith, or writing in a book has not happened during the Prophet SAW and so does not Friends around at the time. At the time of Prophet SAW there is a history that comes from the Prophet SAW that allows to write down the Hadith, but the writing of hadith on the Prophet was carried by a private individual persons and certain persons who need to write or permitted by the Apostles to write it.

Writing in the Hadith and the Prophet SA W as well during the Companions are not yet official. The Friends of the reign of Khilafat al-Rashidun, in general, refrain from doing the writing of Hadith. It is in them because of the prohibition of the Prophet SAW hadith he wrote. However, in addition to the ban, on the other side of Rasul SAW also provides an opportunity for the Companions to write his hadith. This led to controversy in the writing of Hadith between the prohibition and permissibility of writing down Hadith.

B. DISCUSSION
How To Receive Tradition At The Friends of the Prophet Muhammad

Traditions of the Prophet are collected in books of Hadith that there now is a result of the seriousness of the Companions Hadith in receiving and maintaining the first days of the Prophet Muhammad. What was accepted by the companions of the Prophet is also presented by them to another friend who was not present when someone is and then they pass to the next generation, and so on until up to the final narrator of Hadith codified.

Tradition in the way of acceptance of the Prophet Muhammad is not the same as the way of revenue generation during the later Hadith. Acceptance of hadith on the Prophet Muhammad made ​​by his close friend, like Khulafah Rasyidindan among other major Sahabt. The Companions of the Prophet's great interest to obtain the hadith on the Prophet SAW, because they try hard to follow his Prophet, in order words, deeds and taqrir he can accept or nominally see them directly. If any of them are absent, then they seek to follow or friend who happened to be present with the Prophet when it is to ask what they had obtained from him.
There are four ways adopted by the friends to get the Hadith of the Prophet SAW, namely:
Go to assemblies held taklim Prophet Muhammad. Prophet Muhammad always provide special times to teach teachings of Islam to the Companions. The Companions are always trying to attend the assembly although they also have busy with his work each. If they are unable to attend then they turn these assembly, as did Umar and his neighbors. In attendance to give out information that they get to that could not attend.


Sometimes the Prophet Muhammad had some particular event, then he explained the law to his companions. If the companions are present to witness the event polynomial, then the news about the events that will soon be widespread. However, if the present is only a little, then the Prophet ordered those present to tell the friend who can not attend.


Sometimes the Prophet Muhammad saw or heard a friend make a mistake, then he corrected the error. Narrated by Umar, that he was watching an ablution for prayers, but he did it without having to wash the top of his toenails. It is seen the Prophet Muhammad and told him to refine his wudunya by saying: "Come thou and baguskan wudu (polishing) was wudumu". The person is immediately repeated wudunya and then did he carry shaolatnya.


Sometimes it happens a number of events in themselves the friends, then they asked the Prophet Muhammad and his law to the Prophet Muhammad gave a fatwa, or legal description of the event. Cases that occur occasionally on the questioner's own self, but not infrequently happens paddy yourself another friend who happened to be witnessed or heard. Prophet Muhammad in this case does not distinguish between a dating friend asked him, so that a Badawi who come from distant places would be treated the same as what is obtained by a friend who was with Prophet SAW. B ahkan when a friend heard something (indirectly) from the Prophet, the Companions, in order to confirm the news, no hesitate to ask them back to him. And pada.umumnya in order, untukmendapatkan testimony convincing and reassuring them about the events that happen to them, the friend was ashamed to come directly asked the Prophet Muhammad. However, among those there who are shy to ask directly to the Prophet Muhammad about the problems they experienced the pliers are usually concerned friend of a friend who would send others to ask about the status of the matter.


Sometimes the friends saw the Messenger SAW to do something and often act relating to the procedures of worship such as prayer, fasting, zakat, hajj, and others. Friend who witnessed the deed, and then present it to the other or subsequent generations. After getting the tradition in that way, the next friend mengahapal hadith as well as the Al-Quran.

At the writing of Hadith The Prophet Muhammad

Reading and writing is already known to the Arabs since the time of Ignorance, even though its not yet complete. After Islam down the activities of reading and writing increasingly more energized and encouraged, This is mainly because some of the first demands of Allah revealed to His Prophet through revelation is learning to read and write commands (Surah Al-Alaq [96]: 1-5).

Basically at the time of the Prophet Muhammad had a lot of Muslims who can read and write. Even the Apostles had a revelation about 40 authors in addition to the authors for other matters. Because of the lack of argument that says the number of Muslims who are good at reading and writing are not the cause of Hadith were put officially at the time of the Prophet Muhammad is not appropriate because it is based on the above information has been seen that many Muslims who can read and write.

Why the tradition has not been formally written on the Prophet Muhammad, there are a variety of information and arguments that terkdang conflicting with each other. Among these traditions are part ditemukannnya justify and encourage the writing of Hadith, in addition there is another hadith that forbids the writing of this Hadith.

A. Writing Hadith ban
There is a Hadith that the Prophet forbade his Companions to write down the hadith they hear or terima'dari Prophet. Badis traditions are:

A. Hadith Abi Sa'eed al Khudri:
Of Abi Sa'eed al Khudri, that RasuI SAW said, "Do not write anything from me, and who write me for something other than the Qur'an then let him erase it." (Muslim)

2. Hadith Abi Hurairah:
Abu Hurairah said, "The Prophet one day and found out we were menuIiskan hadith, the Prophet SAW said, 'Did you write this?' We replied, "The traditions that we have heard of thee O Allah's Apostle. "RasuI SAW said," Is that book than the Book of Allah (the Qur'an)?, T ahukah you, not misguided people of the foregoing except as they wrote the book - another book with the Book of Allah. "(Reported by al Khatib)

3. Hadith of Abu Sa'id al-Khudri:
Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said: "We've tried to really ask for permission to write (Hadith), but the reluctant prophet (give permission)." In another narration from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri also, he said: "We requested permission from the Prophet SAW to menuIis (Hadith), but the Prophet SAW would not let us." (Reported by AI-Khatib and al-Darimi).

The third history shows that the Companions of Prophet Muhammad forbade writing his hadiths, and even ordered his Companions who had written to remove the hadith. Based on the above narrations, it gives birth to the opinion among the scholars who claim that writing Hadith Prophet SAW is prohibited. Even among the Companions themselves believe there are several names that would ban the writing of Hadith, such as Abu Sa'id al-Khudri, 'Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud, Abu Musa al-Ash' ari, Abu Hurairah, Abd Allah ibn 'Abbas , Jan Abd Allah ibn 'Umar.
B. Command (The ability) Writing Tradition

There are a number of Hadiths that allow, even ordered to write down the Hadith, as the equivalent of hadith that prohibits from writing Hadith. Among The traditions that allow or ordered to write hadith is:

A. Hadith Rafi '
From the Raft 'ibn Khudaij that he told, we asked the Prophet, "O Messenger of Allah, verily we have heard from you a lot of things (hadith), does (should) we write it?" He replied, "T uliskanlah by you for me and no objections (no sin)" (Reported by al-Khatib)

2. Hadith Malik ibn Anas
From Anas ibn Malik that he said: "Messenger of Allah said: 'Tie it with a science writing (write)."

3. Hadith Abi Hurairah

This Hadith from Muslim ibn al-Walid al-Yahya ibn Abi Auza'i of Abi Salamah ibn Kathir from 'Abd al-Rahman from Abu Hurairah, he told me about the sermon of the Prophet Muhammad in Mecca when kotaMekah conquests. After delivering the sermon, a man from the country of Yemen is named Abu Shah stood up and said:
Abu Shah said, "Write me the sermon that O Messenger of Allah." Then the Prophet SAW said: "Write it down by you for Abu Shah." Walid said, "I asked kepadaal ~ Auza'i, 'Are the words of the Prophet yangdimaksudkan" write to you to Abu Shah. "Auza'i explains," What is meant with the sermon of the Prophet SAW didengamya. "(Bukhari and Ahmad)

4. Hadith 'Abd Allah ibn'Amr

And 'Abd Allah ibn' Amr, I said: Yes Rasuulalh (may I) I wrote what I heard from you? He replied: "Sure." I then asked: "In a state of angry or happy?" Rasul SAW said: "Yes, I do not say anything unless
the haq (truth). (Ahmad).

 Fourth Hadith above shows that the Prophet SAW allow even encourage his Companions to write his hadith.

Factors Ensuring Sustainability of Tradition

There are several factors that support the preservation of continuity of Hadith from the Prophet SAW, namely:
A. Quwwat al-dzakirah, the strength of the companions who memorized and listen to instantly receive Hadith-Hadith of the Prophet SAW, and when they narrated the Hadith-Hadith who had memorized them into tersebur to another friend or the next generation. They deliver exactly what they memorized of the Prophet SAW.

2. Prudence of the Companions in Hadith narrated from the Prophet. This they do is because of fear of being wrong or something that is not the Hadith tercampurkan to in the Hadith. Because of prudence tersebutlah, then there are some Companions a few narrated Hadith, like 'Umar ibn al-Khattab. In addition, the Sahaba narrated the Hadith will only be when necessary, and when narrated me: they were trying as carefully as possible in the pronunciation.

3. Prudential them in accepting Hadith, namely that they are not in a hurry to accept the Hadith from someone with transmitters that unless there are other people who come to hear dari.Nabi SAW or from other transmitters on it. According to al-AI-Hafidz Dzababi. Abu Bakr was the first to be very careful in mrnenerima Hadith. Narrated Ibn Shihab from Qusaybah ibn Dzu'aib that a grandmother came to Abu Bakr asking the inheritance. Abu Bakr said to him, "No kudapatkaurn in the Qur'an part for you, and do not know too that the Prophet said to you, " Then Abu Bakr asked the Sahaba, then Al_Mughirah stood up and said, "I heard the Prophet Muhammad gave him a sixth part." Abu Bakr further asked, "Is there someone else with you (who heard it)?" So Muhammad Ibn Maslamah stand to testify about it. Abu Bakr then, based on the news, carry out the provision of that section.

4. Understanding of the verse "Innaa nahnu nadjalnaa dzikra waannaalahuu lahaafidhuun"
Mustafa al-Siba'I argue that the business is guaranteed preserved from alteration (distortion) is the Al-Al-Dhikr Dhikr and, in addition to Al-Quran, also includes Sunnah or Hadith. And if this argument is acceptable, then this is a pretty important factor guarantor, as the direct nature of Allah SWT.

The Friends of the Hadith and Tabi'in

At the caliphate Khilafat al.-Rashidun, particularly the Abu Bakr al-Siddiq and 'Umar ibn alKhaththab, transmission and Hadith are a little bit slow. In this period Hadith narration done in a rigorous and very carefully. This is evident from the way they accept the Hadith. Abu Bakr as described above in the case of a grandmother in the estate, that he asked the witness (Shahadah) someone else to accept the hadith transmitted by Ibn Mughirah Syu 'bah, and when it's a testimony to the truth is that the Hadith is derived from the Prophet Muhammad ibn Maslamah.

Similarly, 'Umar ibn al-Khattab, that he did not easily accept the Hadith as seen in the following description. When Abu Musa al-Ash'ari visit to Umar, he said good-bye to three times. "Umar heard, but did not answer, because he thought Abu Musa would go see him. These allegations were missed, because he saw Abu Musa returned home. When 'Umar after him and asked him why he turned to go home, Abu Musa explained that Rasul.ullah SAW had said, "If someone said good-bye to three times and did not answered by the landlord, then let him pul.ang back". Umar was not satisfied on the evidence of Abu Musa, even Omar threatened him with punishment if he can not bring Bayyinah, which is a witness on the testimony of Abu Musa was presented. And, at the Ubay ibn Ka'b that arose to explain the truth of history, so that eventually Umar took it and he said, "I'm not accusing you intend to do with it, but I worry that people talk about the Prophet Muhammad by making it there " According to Ibn Umar Ibn Qutayba al_Khaththab are the loudest in opposing them in the narration of Hadith. It was meant to avoid confusion in the narration of Hadith.

History records that in the period Khulafaurrasyidin, particularly the Abu Bakr and Umar, so few and slow. This is due to their general tendency to menyedikitkan history (taqlil al-history), in addition to the cautious stance of the Companions and careful in accepting Hadith. Basically they are doing that is because of fear of a mistake (al-khatha ') in the hadith narrated, because the Hadith are a source of Islarn teachings after the Qur'an. Accuracy and prudence in accepting a Hadith not only look at ourselves the Khilafat 'al-Rashidun, but also at the Companions of the Other, such as Abu Ayyub al-Ansari. Abu Ayyub had traveled to Egypt only in order to match a Hadith from 'Amr ibn Uqbah.

The attitude of sincerity and prudence in maintaining Companions Hadith followed by Tabi'in who came after them. It is seen as conducted by the Tabi'in in Basrah. They deem it necessary to confirm Hadith received from a friend in Basra with the Companions in Madinah. So, even though it earned them a hadith from Companions, the Tabi'in still feel the need to check the truth of the Hadith of the other Companions.


The area of transmission of Hadith spreader

After the Prophet's death, either during the period of companions, the companions are no longer locked in Medina. They had begun to spread to other cities in addition to Medina. Friends of the intensity spread into these areas look so great especially during the caliphate of 'Uthman ibn' Affan, which gives leeway to the companions to leave the city of Medina. Islamic empire in the period of 'Uthman had been covering the entire Arabian peninsula, the Sham (Palestine, Jordan, Syrians, and Lebanese), the entire region of Iraq, Egypt, Persia, and the Samarkand region.

In general, when the expansion of Islam, the Sahaba build mosques in new areas and in new places that most of them spread the teachings of Islam taught by the Qur'an and the Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad to the local population . With the spread of the Companions to the areas with the spirit of spreading the teachings of Islam, the spread is also the Hadith-Hadith of the Prophet SAW. In line with the above conditions, and with the demand to teach science the new religion to the people embraced Islam, the Caliph 'Uthman ibn 'Affan, and so does Ali ibn Abi Talib, started to make allowances in the narration of Hadith. As a result, the Sahaba began issuing treasury and the collection of Hadith that so far they have, either in writing or memorizing. They give and receive Hadith with each other, so that what is called the iktsar riwayah al-Hadith (the Hadith increase in the quantity of transmission). Such a state of increasingly attracted the attention of residents in the local area to come see the Companions who are domiciled in their respective cities to study the Qur'an and the Hadith, and they was later known as the generation that play a role in disseminating Tabi'in Hadith in the next period.

Hadith transmission in the general Tabi'in is still word of mouth (al-musyafahat), as a student of Hadith-Hadith directly obtained from a number of teachers and hear directly from their narrative, and then stored by memorizing them. The difference with the previous period is that during this Hadith narration has been expanded and many terms that are known al-riwayah iktsar (pembanyakan history). And, even at this time precisely known figures who holds al-Friend muktsirin (which many have Hadith) in the field of Hadith which consists of 7 members and a majority of whom was Abu Hurairah there. At the Tabi'in is becoming known also what is called the rihlah, which is committed by a person traveling from one city to another in search of Hadith-Hadith who allegedly owned by a friend who resides in another city is. Rihlah to get the Hadith tradition is actually rooted in the Friends since the days of Prophet SAW. However, at that time rihlah more general nature for the purpose of seeking information teachings of Islam which was considered "new". For example, it is reported that Ibn Dhamam rihlah Tsa'labah never done before to listen to the Prophet Muhammad AI-Qur'an and the teachings of Islam which brought him shortly after he learned of the apostolic mission of Muhammad. Dhamam then returned to his people as soon as sincerely declare Islam itself.

At the time my friend, Tabi'in, and al-Tabi'in Tabi'i rihlah growing tradition and directed the activities of finding and getting the Hadith in particular. Many of those who traveled a long and tiring and takes a long time for the purpose of listening to a Hadith, or check the validity of the Hadith, or because they want to meet and stay in touch with a friend to further gain from their Hadith. The latter is generally done by the Tabi'in. In this way, there was a history of exchange between one city with another city.


Writing in The Friends of Hadith and Tabi'in

Although there is a history that comes from the Prophet SAW that allows to write down the Hadith, and the occurrence of events during the writing of Hadith Prophet Muhammad to those who were given leeway by the Prophet SAW to do so, but the Sahaba, generally refrain from writing Hadith in the reign of Khilafat 'al-Rashidun. This is because the magnitude of their desire to save the Al-Quran al-Karim and also the Sunnah (Hadith). However, that case did not last long, because when 'illat prohibition to write Hadith gradually disappear so the more the Sahaba that allow the writing of Hadith.

Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, for example, is a Companion of the opinion did not write down the Hadith. Reported by AI-Hakim with sanadnya of Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad, from 'A'isha ra, she (' A'isha) said that his father collects the Hadith from the Prophet SAW who number around 500 Hadith. Abu Bakr one night tossing and turning his body over and over again, and when dawn came he asked A'ishah's Hadith-Hadith on them. Furthermore, when 'A'ishah arrived with the Hadith-Hadith, Abu Bakar fire, then burn it HadisHadis.

Likewise, 'Umar ibn al-Khattab who was originally thought to gather Hadith, but not so long ago, he turned away from his intention. Narrated 'Urwa ibn al-Zubayr, that' Umar ibn al-Khattab intend to write about the Sunnah, then he asked for fatwas of the Companions of the others about it, and hinted that the Companions of Umar wrote. Umar then do istikharah to God for a month, and finally he took a decision delivered in the presence of the Companions, in one morning, saying, "Verily, I intend going to record the Sunnah, but I thought of a people before you who wrote several books, then they are preoccupied with these books dati leave the Book of Allah and that I am, "By Allah, Allah will not mix with any book for good." On the other through the history of Malik ibn Anas, Umar, when he turns from his intention to write Sunna, said, "No one else can book accompanies the book of Allah."

Of the statement 'Umar above, shows that the rejection of the writing of Hadith is due to the concerns of Muslims berpalingnya to learn something other than the Qur'an and abandon the Book of Allah (Al-Quran). Instead, he forbade Muslims to write something other than the Qur'an, including hadith. And for those who have already written it, "Umar ordered them to bring it to him, and then he himself was burnt"

The other friend who also undertakes the writing of Hadith ban on the early days were in between, was' Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud, 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, Abu Hurairah, Ibn' Abbas, and Abu Sa'id al-Khudri. Will However, when the causes of the prohibition of writing the Hadith, the fears of percampur mix between Al-Qur'an by the Hadith or the other has been lost, then the Companions began to relax their ban, and even among them there are actually doing or recommend to write down Hadith. It is like that done Umar, that when he saw that the maintenance of the Qur'an have been safe and secure, she began to write down some of the Hadith of the Prophet SAW is then sent to some of his employees or his friend. Abu 'Uthman al-Nahdi said, "When we are together' Utbah Farqad ibn 'Umar wrote to him about some problems he had heard from RasuI SAW, which include a ban on the wearing of silk Rasulullall SAW,"

Similarly, the other friend who was originally banned to do the writing of Hadith, but after fears of tersia-sianya the Qur'an, one of the main causes of the Hadith ban on writing, lost, then they started to allow, even to himself, writing of Hadith. As for Tabi'in, their attitude in terms of the writing of Hadith is following in the footsteps of the Companions. It is none other than because the Tabi'in acquire knowledge, including the Hadith-Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad, was from the Sahaba. Thus it is reasonable that they be rejected writing Hadith when the causes of any prohibitions, as adopted by the Khilafat alRasyidin and the other Companions, and conversely, when the causes of the ban has been lost, they also agreed to allow the writing of Hadith, even most of them encourage and promote the writing and books.
In line with the stance and attitude of the Companions, that there are pros and cons of writing there is a hadith, because of the Hadith-Hadith Hadith that prohibits writing on the side that allow it there, then the attitude of the Tabi'in too, which is among those who some are pros and cons. Among those opposed to the writing of Hadith is 'Ubaidah ibn' Amr alSal-mani (d. 72 AH), Yazid ibn Ibrahim al-Taimi (d. 92 AH), Jabir ibn Zayd (d. 93 AH), and Ibrahim al- Nakha'i (d. 96 AH).

Tabi'in reluctance in writing this Hadith further increased when they realized that many of the scholars of hadith in his opinion when it includes a narrated Hadith, so feared when history is written will be shipped well written opinion of the narrator, and the people who came later after they likely to suspect that such is the opinion of the narrators of Hadith as well. Kebanyakap expert on the Hadith is also an expert Tabi'in jurisprudence (fuqaha), and Fiqh scholars tend to combine with his opinion that the hadith concern opinion and ijtihad is united with the Hadith-Hadith Prophet SAW. For example, is narrated as follows:

Te1ah came a of men to Sa'id ibn alMusayyab, one of the Tabi'in fuqaha who narrated the Hadith ban on writing. The man asked a Hadith to Ibn al-Musayyab, which is answered by Ibn al-Hadith Musayyab by suggesting to the last man. After that, the man asked about the opinion of Ibn alMusayyab Hadith regarding the above, the question was soon answered by Ibn al-Musayyab to express his opinion. The man was apparently written opinion of Ibn al-Musayyab together with the newly Tradition dictated by Ibn alMusayyab. Seeing this, one of who was present with Ibn al-Musayyab said, "What do you think wrote it well, O Abu Muhammad?" Hear it, Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab said to the man said, "Give me a sheet that record. "The men give it, and Ibn al-Musayyab immediately tore.

Based on the above events, it appears that that was not favored by the scholars from among Tabi'in are writing their opinions together with NabiSAW Hadith, and Hadith rather than the writing itself. Because if it happens, will likely occur with a mixture of their opinion Hadith Prophet. This is similar to the prohibition of writing Hadith by Prophet Muhammad and his Companions ever, whose sole purpose is to prevent intermingling of the hadith with the Qur'an.


Therefore, when fears of a mixture of the writing of Hadith by narrators opinion has to be overcome, then most Tabi'in make allowances even encourage their students to write down the Hadith-Hadith which they teach. There are Tabi'in among themselves they are very enthusiastic about the write-Hadith Hadith which they receive from the Sahaba. Among these are Sa'id ibn Zubair (d. 95 AH) who wrote the Hadith-Hadith received from Ibn 'Abbas. Similarly with 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Harmalah are given leeway by Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab (d. 94 AH) to write down the Hadith-Hadith from him when' Abd al-Rahman complained about the bad occasion to Ibn al- Musayyab. 'Amir al-Sya'bi, a cleric from the Tabi'in Fiqh, and even ordered his disciples untu'k write any Hadith he delivered to them, saying, "When you hear something (Hadith), then you write me the Hadith even though the wall. "The same impulse to write down the Hadith for the students was also conducted by ibn Al-Dhahhak Muzahim (d. 105 H).

Hadith writing activities, in the Tabi'in increasingly widespread in the late first and early second century of the Hijra. 'Umar ibn' Abd al-'Aziz (61-101 AH), as an Amir al-Mu'minin when it also directly participate actively seek and write down the Hadith.

If you are interested to copy paper, so I allowed it outright, but I hope my friend put my link ya .. I'm sure a good friend. other than paper Hadith the Prophet and the Companions , you can read the other paper in theAneka Ragam Makalah. And If You Want to Share your paper to my blog please click here .


References

1. Prof.Dr. Nawir Yuslem MA Ulumul Hadis . Jakarta : PT Mutiara Sumber Widya, 2001
2. Prof.Dr. Nawir Yuslem MA 9 Kitab Induk Hadis . Jakarta : Hijri Pustaka Utama, 2006
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