Aneka Ragam Makalah

History and Islamic Civilization


Historically, Islamic civilization started from the time of the Prophet, Islam suffered a setback in the progress and civilization. The history of Islamic civilization is a historical benchmark and special studies in this paper. then how exactly is the history of Islamic civilization? This discussion focuses on Islamic civilization in the history category. The entry of Islam into Spain has great significance for Europeans. Through Spain, there was an intense contact, either direct contact between Europeans by Muslims, as well as contact with the media works in various fields of science, including architecture.

Spanish is the main place for European civilization to absorb Islam.1 However, very attractive to European thought and science is the advancement of Islam in the East. They saw that the Spanish ever since under Islam, has been outpacing its neighbors in Europe, especially in the realm of thought and science, in addition to building fisik.2 Event direct contact between the Europeans with their admiration for Islam and Muslims encouraging them to learn to Muslims. Form of admiration arose among others in the form of large-scale translation of the books written by Muslims (mostly Arabic) to the languages ​​they understand. Of course it brings new information and changes to them with all its implications.

Among those changes can be found in Curriculum education. Prior to the 21st century world of Latin curriculum is dominated by what is known as The Seven Liberal Arts. First, the trivium included grammar, rhetoric, and logic. Second, quadrivum includes arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and musik.3

After the entry of new information from the works of Muslim hasil penerjemahan the curriculum and the expansion of any mengalamiperubahan secarasignifikan. Awareness and interest untukmembangkitkankembali Yunanai and Roman scientific tradition in such a manner to form the spirit of the times and scale massal.4

The results of the translation was not only instrumental in introducing the Roman Greek heritage, but also merupakantambang belumpernah new knowledge available to the Latin world before. Re-absorption process information from the Islamic world this is the end of the darkness of Europe. This early embryo renaisans.5

Renaissance was a time when the revival of Greco-Roman heritage back in Europe with the media grab the translation through the work of Muslim scientists or non-Muslims, but Islam munculseiring with the progress of civilization, especially through Spain. However, before discussing further the renaissance, it is necessary to first explain how the process occurs. Renaissance becomes very important in European history, as marked renaissance man free from mythology and dogma-dogma.6

Translation

Translation is an important activity in terms of transition / transfer of knowledge from the Islamic world to Europe. The entry of Islam to the world's intellectual treasures of Europe via two routes. First, through the students and scholars from Western Europe who study in high schools and universities of Spain. Secondly, through the translation of the works of Muslim sources Arab.7 language translation becomes very important activity because it lasts longer than the process of knowledge transfer directly from the students and scholars. More lamakarena first line has been disrupted due to war. Peak when Granada fell into the hands of Europe in 1492.8

The emergence of the desire to translate the works of Muslims into various European languages ​​very easily guessed. As written on the front of the paper is that the Europeans saw significant progress has been achieved in Spain under Islam. Bersunber progress of a good mastery of his time to science. Therefore, science must be in control. The problem is that the majority of science are written using the Arabic language, which at that time not many people who can understand it Eroa. Therefore it is necessary to translate the works.

Serious translation takes place mainly in the 12th century and the 13th, continues in a lower intensity in the next century. Approaching the mid 1300's, the number of works of translation has reached 1200 to 1500 judul.9 Nakosteen According to records, there were 77 translators orang.10

Those who translate books from Latin number (30 people). They are translating books from Greek into Arabic or Hebrew language amounted to (37 people). Those who translate books from Arabic into Spanish number (7 oarng). People who translate books from Arabic into Catalan (Limousinia) amounted to (1 man named Judah Bonsenyor or Jafuda, died 1331). People who menerjemahkanbuku-books from Persian into Greek numbered (2 men, named Gregorios Chioniades and Georgios Choates).

According to Nakosteen, the translation took place in various fields of science and has been at the beginning in 1126 by Adelard of Bath (also called Aethelhard, Alard). He translated the astronomical tables of the work Khwarizmi (780-850 AD) .11 Other work early Iebih diterjenahkan the work of Ibn Sina (980-1037). The first translation of his work has been done in Latn between the years 1130 and 1150 by the Archdeacon and John Dominic Gundisalvus Avendeath of Seville, above anticipates the command of Raymond, bishop of the Tolledo.12

But there are other data showing that the translation had been started earlier. In Sicily, the first character translation activities Arabic works into Latin was Constantine Africanus (d. 1087) of a Christian monk from Tunis. He spent time during the seven than in Salermo (Sicilia) to study medicine and started doing the translation since 1070.13

The Qur'an also does not escape from the translation effort. Peter the Venerable, with the help of Christian and Arab associations, to translate the Koran in the year 1141.13

Authors found no strong proofs of why these works became one of the thousands who first translated work. But the authors suggest that consideration needs to be alone is a factor. As well as translation of Greek philosophical works, at first because of the need to answer the problems of philosophy.

 Here are some of the translator's name who took part in the translation.
  • Translator from Arabic into Latin (totaling 30 people) include: 14

  • Adelard of Bath who translated three titles, of which performed in 1126

  • Alfred of Sareshel or known by Walfred, Alvred, Alphiatus, Sarewel, Serechel. He translated three titles of which are carried out in 1200.

  • Gerard of Cremona or Gerardus Cremonensis. He translated many books through the school interpreter. Which he translated the work of 54 titles.


Translator from Greek into Arabic or Hebrew language (Jews) amounted to 37 people, among them: 15

A. Abraham ha-Nasi bar Hayyan, known as Savasarda, he translated the treatise on music.
Moses ibn Tibbon, a physician, mathematician, astronomer, and translator. He translated 30 titles.
Todros Todrosi or dekenal by Meshullam ben David ben Todros Todrasi. He translated six titles. 1 by Al Farabi, Ibn Sina 1, and 4 of Ibn Rushd.
Zerahiah Gracian, known as Zerahiah ben Isaac ben Shealtiel Gracian, Zerahiah Hen. He translated or make a review 13 titles.

 the translator from Arabic into Spanish has 7 of them: 16 
Abraham of Abraham Toledoatau Alfaquin known to the Don. He translated three titles.
Alfonso X El Sabio the, also known as Alphonso X the Wise. He translated 18 titles.

Translator from Arabic into the record (I person) are: 17
Bensenyor Judah. He translated three titles.

Translator from Persian into Greek (2 people) are: 18
Gregorios Chioniades
Georgios Choniates. He translate on the antidote.

Authors have not found the information about the religion professed by each translator, as well as whether there are women among them. However, based on pluralism and freedom when it's growing, and influenced by a high tolerance and love of science, they are assumed to come from different religions and there is no indication that the data that form the closed women's chances.

It is worth noting that the role of the people Mozarabes also very important. Mozarabes musta'rabyaitu derived from the Arabic people that were the Arabs are the ones who daily have a way of life and the Arab-Islamic culture. Although they are not Muslim. They have contributed to translating the works of Muslim Arabic into Latin, because they mastered Arabic and Latin sekaligus.19

Another very important note that the transition of science through a translation also carried by the institutionalization of good. There are institutions or schools in terms of translation time. This also applies to p [there is transfer of knowledge from the Greeks to the Islamic world and was also the case in Japan. Can be concluded that the translation process into one that has proved an important icon in the history of the process of science and technology transfer in anywhere.

Thus the historical fact on record. That also happened in Spain. In cities such Toleda such established high school. This work was led by Raymond. To the city of Toledo is also a lot of translators moved from Baghdad, especially those from the Jewish nation. They can master the Arabic language. Jewish, Spanish, and Latin.20

AVERROISME

Averroisme or al-al-Latiniyyah Rusydiyyah is an intellectual movement that developed in the West (Eropa0 in the 13th century until the 17th century. In principle, the movement sought to develop ideas Averroisme Ibn Rushd was a rational, philosophical, and scientific. Averroisme led to the birth of renaissance Europe , which in turn brought the West in modern times with the rapid progress in the fields of philosophy, science and teknologi.21

Averroisme inimenjadi important factors to be encouraging the birth of the renaissance, as well as the influence on the thinking of many books get translated. Averroisme and translator movement began on a large scale in Spain to be very special in achieving progress in the West. No exaggeration to state Siddiqi Nouruzzaman Spain (Andalusia) as' Muslim pedestrian bridge to the West. "22

European contact with the thought of Ibn Rushd this attitude stems from the government al-Muwahhidin, after the death of Abu Yaacob in 1184 and the coronation of his son al-Mansur Abu Yusof. Al-Mansur is said to have received slander of those who do not like Ibn Rushd, causing him arrested and diisngkirkan to Lucena in the South Cordova. Caliph is also ordered that all his books burned and banned membacanya.23

There are also opinions that say that among the events that libel is that the jurists of high standing to the side of the Caliph, as they have a place in the government Murabitun24 (1086-1235). However, according to Ernest Renan that the government al-Muwahiddin are followers of the teachings of Imam al-Ghazali is the meaning of philosophy and founder of the reign of Muhammad Ibn al-Mahdi Tumart adalahmurid faithful of al-Ghazali.25

Slander is blown and exaggerated by pemitnah-pemitnah which alleged that Ibn Rushd was apostate from Islam and opposes all profess belief in the Muslim community because he adheres to Greek philosophy as opposed to Islam.26 After the Averroes disposal to Lucena and burning books his publications, his influence in Andalusia remains.

Some of the faithful follower of his students, including Maimunides, Joseph Benjehovah, both Jews, welcomed him with a sense of love in Lucena. In this exile Ibn Rushd continues its work is teaching and writing so many Jewish youth come to learn kepadanya.26 No wonder that in spite of his books were burned, his thoughts are still found in books written by his students in Hebrew .

Ibn Rushd continued to grow in Europe. The works translated into Hebrew (Hebrew / Hebrew) later appeared in Latin translation. This then affects European thought and shook the foundations of socio-religious life. His influence comes through Averroisme movement. This movement lasted for four hundred years, the years 1250-1650 M.27 Averroisme movement was first grown in Italy.

Historically, averroisme is a term used to indicate the interpretation of the philosophy. Averroisme developed by Ibn Rushd by thinkers of the Latin West. At first the term was intended sebagaipenghinaan (connotative) against his supporters. No one dared to declare himself as a firm supporter Averroisme. It was only in the Jandun Johannes (d. 1328) who first asserted itself openly as Averroisme.28

Ibn Rushd and the rational Averroisme diametrically in conflict with church doctrine. Ibn Rushd's rationalism understanding developed in the West opposed the notion of absolute acceptance of church doctrine. As a result, conflicts arise among others, scientists reject and condemn the accused Christianity as a source of deterioration.

Of course it raises the anger of the Church. The Pope held the inquisition against those who have been deemed out of Christian doctrine. During the years 1481-1801, no less than 340,000 people in jatuhi hukumsn.hampir 32 000 of them were burned alive-hidup.29 Another opinion says that from the years 1481-1499, was sentenced Talah burn alive to scientists as much as 10 220 people. In addition there are 66 860 people in law gant8ung and 97 023 people in the law with a variety of tortures and hukuman.30

Among the scientists who have the inquisition of them. Roger Bacon (1214-1292) he was a mathematician and astronomer. Suffered imprisonment for many years. Servetus, a Spaniard, was burned alive in Geneva in 1553 for opposing the doctrine of the trinity. Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) was sentenced to death in Rome by being burned alive in 1600. He accused adopts as opposed to the religious Kristenkarena heleosentris adopts a previously developed by the Polish astronomer Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543) Galileo Galilei (1564-16420 tried by the court because the ideology heleosentris inkuisi like Bruno. But not to be killed, imprisoned only lifetime hidup.31

Although it was banned by the church averroisme but his followers will never run out. Even his voice sounded louder in Parisketika Johannes of Jandum states averroisme movement is somewhat different. Mengatakanbahwa averroisme he was right, in addition, the Bible is true. For him there are two truths, the truth and the truth is philosophically teologi.32

Can be concluded that the movement averroisme derived from rational thought Ibn Rushd because it certainly would appreciate sense-has opened the minds of Europeans. The previous peak of their knowledge is always adjusted to the next church no longer understand. There is another rationale, which often makes them really can not agree with the church

Renaissance

Renaissance literally means renaissance or resurrection when the Europeans raised the heritage of Greek and Roman science that had drowned. Knowledge to their arrival through the Islamic civilization, especially in Spain. Translation movements and direct contact with the heritage of science and the Muslims became very important in the renaissance.

Averroisme be also very important movement that encourages the emergence of the Renaissance. Figure-a reference to Ibn Rushd (1126-1197)-known as a very good Muslim scientists in the mastery of Greek thought, especially Aristotle. He wrote commentaries on the works of Aristotle; between work that is:
  • Al-Hayawan (1169) comments on the works of Aristotle de Anima
  • Sharh al-Sama 'wa al-knows best (1170), commenting on De Caelo et Mundo
  • Al-Kawn wa al-facade, commenting on the work of De Generatione et Corruptione
  • Talkhish al-Sama 'wa al-Thabi'I 91 170) comments on the Physica
  • Al-Ma Talkhish Ba'd Thabi'ah (1174) comments on the Metaphysica
  • Burhan Sharh Book (1170), commenting on the Demonstration
  • Talkhish Kitab al-Syi'r (1174) commenting on Aristotle's Poetica
  •  Kitab al-Akhlaq Talkhish Aristhutalis li (1176), commenting on the Ethica Nicomachea.
The books of Aristotle and of course there are others after further commented on by Ibn Rushd translated into various languages ​​commonly understood by Europeans. One common effect is the high position so as to encourage rationalism. Because Ibn Rushd's commentary was exactly that Europe opens his eyes to the legacy of Greek and Roman science in the past so that hundreds of years behind.

To get an adequate picture of the history of the West-particularly in the context of this paper-it's worth the attention of periodization used by Hassan Hanafi. He divides Western history into six periods. First, are the days of the church that took place since the first century BC until to-7. Second, the Scholastic era which ended in the 14th century.

Third, the era of religious reform which lasted from the 14th century until the 15th century. fourth, the renaissance era of the 16th century. Fifth, the age of rationalism and enlightenment (Aufklarung) lasted until the 17th century. sixth, modern existentialism and the philosophy lasted until sekarang.33 Another opinion says, the era of European renaissance in the 14th century until about mid-century 17:34

European Renaissance in bidangkeilmuan implies among other sciences try to release attachment to religion (Christian khususna sebagaiagama majority of European society). So it was inevitable that it also became the forerunner of secularism, particularly the process of secularization to secularism. Yaitudesakralisasi, which eliminates the things that had inidianggap sacred in the basic tenets of religion, but only the opinion or the previous notions about religion. Such understanding is questionable (validity) and abandoned, since it is incompatible with the contemporary world. This approach sosiologis.35

Rationalism that is driven by Ibn Rushd and Averroisme then developed in Europe. Rationalism is what gave birth to the Renaissance, the revival of the movement of humans from the bondage of myths and dogmas. Ideals of the Renaissance is returning back to the sovereignty of man, which for centuries has been taken by the gods and the mythology. Berpuast human life rather than to God, so the notion of renaissance. Humans have dominion over nature semesta.36

Furthermore born huanisme or anthropocentric understanding that human beings assume the center of everything. Then came the modernism that relied on humanism. Economic autonomy of religion. Politics out of religion.

So we can conclude (by penulis0 that Islam (civilization) has a very important relationship with the European renaissance. Muslims are learning to the Greeks, Persians, Indians, Chinese and Roman (by making comments and criticism). While the Europeans were not longer knew him. Furthermore, through Islam by scientists, especially in Spain, as stated above, Ibn Rushd jugaa encouraged thoughts and Averroisme through direct contact and translation-European people know back peradabanYunanai heritage that has been promoted Muslim scientists. This prompted renaissance.

Legacy inherited by the triumph of Greek civilization and Roman civilization of Hellenism, and in turn when Roman also surpassed its peak, was taken over by the legacy of Islamic civilization. At gailirannya, Islamic civilization was declining and the estate was translated into Latin and other European languages. Translation-initiated resurrection penerjemahanitu social, cultural, educational remarkable dikeanal the European enlightenment.

Very true what they say DR.Hasan Asari, MA that no matter how Western scientists who willfully deny or at least downplay the contribution of Islam in the Western intellectual tradition, they need to remember that the interaction in terms of mutual influence and borrowing is something that is necessarily the study of human civilization .36 So, yes ... do not deny, and nothing to be ashamed. Honest.

LINE-LINE AND RELATED ASPECTS

Areas most berpengaruhlangsung of transmission (spreading) - with all its implications-Islamic science to the West are Spain and Sicily. In the region of Spain, the city's transformation into a major center of Islamic civilization to the West is a Toledo, while the city of Palermo in Sicily. This is reasonable because the second position is a strategic region, located on the border of East and Barat.37 transmission process is also via the path / route triangular trade in the Spanish-Sicilian-Syiria.38 as it is located in the mainland Amaka track is a landline, but Syrians are taken by sea.

The relationship of these aspects are as follows:
Trade relations of Muslim Spain, Muslims and African Muslims Sicilia make trade contacts to Christian lands by land and sea.
Relationship education. Universities such as the city of Cordova Seville, Toledo, Granada, and Valencia dikujungi many European youths. Since the 10th century had many students from various European countries who gathered in the cities of the Muslim knowledge Spanyol.39 untukmenyaukilmu Near the end of the 12th century has stood 5 universities in Europe, Salermo (base medical school) and Bologna (base school law), both in Italy. Universita Paris where Oxford in England. The largest of which is the University of Paris where Oxford is a branch which in turn gave birth to Cambridge in 1209. Other universities that developed in the 13th century was Padua (1222), Naples (1224), Orleans,,, Angiers and Salamnca in Spanyol.40 relationship through the direct translation of the works of Muslim scientists to the European berbagaibahasa as mentioned in the previous section.

Relations through the Crusades (1095-1291). At times it is possible truce for both sides to understand each other and get to know each well. This is where the West began to emerge a desire to learn a lot from Islam. Especially the cross began to open his eyes to watch the state of the Islamic world is very different from what they imagined. They menyadaribahwa Islamic world is very civilized and more advanced than their own. Consequences arising from their consciousness is benefiting from mimics many of the Islamic world in terms of civilization Islam.41


INFLUENCE OF ISLAM ON THE WEST

The influence of Islam against the West (Europe) seen in the military, architecture, agriculture, commerce, industry, and life sosial.42 Sepertiyang tampakdari picture fields to be translated, of course, it covers the entire field of influence. Mentioned as important areas of medicine, pharmacy, music, literature and so forth. The author does not determine the overall effect itukarena examples indicative of the influence that a change from what went before.

But as an illustration of how that influence occurs can be seen from the picture the city of Cordova as written by Al-Maqqari (d. 1631) G.Chejne Anwar was quoted as saying, that in 1600 there tu city mosques, 900 public baths, a large building to 60 300 characters leaders such as Wazir, the secretary of state and commander of the war, and real estate 213 077 80. 455 tok. There are also 10 000 light street lights that make the city's street light benderang.43


CONCLUSION

 A. Renaissance is happening in Europe is closely associated with the progress of Islamic civilization, especially in Spain European Renaissance encouraged, among others, the most important thing is berkembanganya ideas of Ibn Rushd and Averroisme.  European Renaissance happened through science media munculdari face meetings of students and the translation of the works of Muslim or that arise due to be raised by a Muslim scientist.  For an improvement, translation menajadi important factor leading to transmission of knowledge to a nation / Muslim. Islamic civilization gave a very strong influence for Europe, until now, though no longer in Than Next.

References and footnotes Papers | History and Islamic Civilization
REFERENCES

Abu al-Hasan al-Nadwi, Islam and the World, Lucknow: Academy of Islamic Research and Publication, 1979

Tafsir Ahmad, Muslim Contribution to Science and Culture, New York: Library, 1986

Hanna al-Fakhuri, Tarikh al-Arabiah philosophy, Beirut: al-Basiliah Maktabah, Volume II, 1958

Harun Nasution, Islam and the notion of Rational Thought, London: Mizan, 1995

Hasan Asari, From Greece To the Renaissance: Tracking the Role of Islamic civilization in the Western Intellectual Tradition, Journal Analytica Islamica, IAIN SUMUT graduate, Year I Volume I Number I, 1999

Kuntowijoyo, Islamic Paradigm, New York; Mizan, Cet I, 1991

Mehdi Nakosteen, Contributed over the World Intellectual Erofa Islam, trans. Joko S. Kahhar danSupriyanto Abdullah, New York: Proceedings of Gusti, Cet I, 1996

Muhaamd Abduh, Science and Civilization In Islam and Christianity, translation Mahyuddin Syaf, New York: Diponegoro, 1992

Muhammad Iqbal, Ibn Rushd & Averroisme, A Revolt Against Religion, London: Style Media Pratama, 2004

Musyrifah Sunanto, Classical Islamic History, New York: Golden Prenada Media, 2003

Nurcholis Madjid, Islam and Indonesian-ness of Medicine, New York: Mizan, 1987

Nouruzzaman Siddiqi, Muslim tamaddun Muslim Cultural Bridges with Africa, London: Moon Star, 1986

SM Imamuddin, Muslim Spain 711-1492, Leiden, EJBrill, 1981

Tariq Ali, Clash between Fundamentalist terj.Hodri Ariev, (Jakarta: Paramadina, 2004

Zainil Abidin Ahmad, Ibn Rushd Biography, New York: Crescent Star, 1975

Footnote

1 Ibn Rusyd dan Pengaruhnya Pada Renaisance di Eropa, makalah Yayasan Wakaf Paramadina, Jakarta, 1992 dengan mengutip Calude Delmas. Tarikh al-Hadharah al-Urobiah, (Beirut; Dar Mansyurat Awidat, 1970), hal. 19

2 Philip K. Hitti, History of the Arabs, (London: MacMillan Press, 19700, hal. 526, 530

3 Hasan Asari, Dari Yunani Hingga Renaisans, Melacak Peranan Peradaban Islam dalam Tradisi Intelektual Barat, Journal Analytica Islamica, Pasca Sarjana IAIN SUMUT, Tahun I Volume I Nomor I, 1999, hal. 23

4 Ibid

5 Ibid

6 Kuntowijoyo, Paradigma Islam, (Bandung; Mizan, Cet I, 1991), hal. 160

7 Mehdi Nakosteen,Konstribusi Islam atas Dunia Intelektual Erofa, terj. Joko S. Kahhar danSupriyanto Abdullah (Surabaya:Risalah Gusti, Cet I, 1996), hal. 271

8 Tariq Ali, Benturan anatar Fundamentalis terj.Hodri Ariev, (Jakarta; Paramadina, 2004)hal. 42

9 Mehdi Nkosteen, Op.cit, hal. 261

10 Ibid, hal. 393-428

11 Ibid, hal.393

12 Ibid, hal. 235

13 Muhammad Iqbal, Ibn Rusyd & Averroisme, Sebuah Pemberontakan Terhadap Agama, (Jakarta: Gaya Media Pratama, 2004) hl. 85 dengan mengutup Anwar G. Chejne, Muslim Spain Its History and Culture, (Minneapolis Minnesota Press, 1974), hal. 402. Menurut Mehdi Nakosteen, Universitas di Salermo yang berbasis kedokteran baru berdiri akhir abad ke-12. lihat Mehdi Nkosteen, Kontribusi Islam. Hal. 269. Namun bisa kemungkinannya bahwa ia belajar kedokteran, tetapi belum pada tempat yang disebut itu sebagai Universitas.

13 Mehdi Nakosteen, Op.cit, hal, 264

14 Ibid, hal.393-408

15 Ibid, hal. 408-423

16 Ibid, hal.423-426

17 Ibid, hl. 427

18 Ibid hal. 427-428

19 SM Imamuddin, Muslim Spain 711-1492 (Leiden, EJBrill, 1981), hal. 192

20 Musyrifah Sunanto, Sejarah Islam Klasik, (Jakarta:Kencana Prenada Media, 2003), hal. 231
21 Harun Nasution, Islam Rasional Gagasan dan Pemikiran,, (Bandung: Mizan, 1995)hal. 116

22 Nouruzzaman Shiddiqi, Tamaddun Muslim Bunga Rampai Kebudayaan Muslim, (Jakarta: Bulan Bintang, 1986), hal.67

23 Mahmd Qasim, Falsafah Ibn Rusyd wa Atharruha fi al-Tafkir al-Gharbi, (Sudan: Jamiah Ummi Durman al –Islamiah, 1967), hal. 12 dalam makalah Ibn Rusyd dan Pengaruhnya Pada Renaisans Eropa, (Jakarta; Yayasan Wakaf Paramadina, 1992).

24 Ibid

25 Zainil Abidin Ahmad, Riwayat Hidup Ibn Rusyd, (Jakarta: Bulan Bintang, 1975), hal. 70, dikutip dari Ernest Renan dalam Averroes Et Laverroisme, Paris, 1852, hal. 191

26 Ibid, hal. 74

26 Hanna al-Fakhuri, Tarikh Falsafah al-Arabiah, (Beirut:Maktabah al-Basiliah, Jilid II, 1958), hal. 385

27 Muhammad Iqbal, Ibn Rusyd & Averroisme, Sebuah Pemberontakan Terhadap Agama, (Jakarta: Gaya Media Pratama, 2004) hl. 95 dengan mengutip Stuart McClintock, “Averroisme”, dalam Paul Edwards, eds, The Encyclopedia of Philosophy Vol I (New York: MacMillan Publishing Co, 1972), hal. 224

28 Muhaamd Iqbal, Ibn Rusyd.., hal. 96

29 Abu aal-Hasan al-Nadwi, Islam and the World, (Lucknow: Academy of Islamic Research and Publication, 1979), hal. 114

30 Muhaamd Abduh, Ilmu dan Peradaban Menurut Islam dan Kristen, terjemahan Mahyuddin Syaf, (Bandung: Diponegoro, 1992), hal. 53

31 Muhaamd Iqbal, Ibn Rusyd…, hal. 105-106

32 Zainal Abidin Ahmad, hal. 171

33 Muhammad Iqbal, Op.cit, hal. 53, ia merujuk Hasan Hanafi, Muqaddimahfi fi Ibn al-Istighrah, (Beirut: Muassasah al-Jami'ah, 1992), hal. 14-15

34 Hasan Asari, Dari Yunani Hingga Renaisans, Op.cit, hal. 25.Renaisnas bermula di Itali, ibid, hal.21

35 Sekularisme dalam penedekatan filosofis dalah paham yang memisahkan secara total antara agama dan nefgara. Menurut Nurcholis Madjid, sekularisme adalah paham yang dimulai dengan formulasiberikan kepada kaisar apa yang menjadi kepunyaan kaisar (urusan duniawi) dan berikan kepada Tuhan apa yang menjadi kepunyaan Tuhan (urusan ukhrowi). Tuhan tidak berhak mencampuri masalah-masalah duniawi (Nurcholis Madjid, Islam Kedokteran dan Keindonesiaan, (Bandung: Mizan, 1987), hal. 179

36 Kuntowijoyo, Paradigma Islam, op.cit. hal. 160

36 Hasan Asari, Dari Yunani Hingga Renaisans, op.cit, hal. 25

37 Ahmad Amin, Zhuhr al-Islam Juz III,(Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-Arabi, ttp), hal. 24 seperti dikutip Muhammad Iqbal, Ibn Rusyd & Averroisme, op.cit, hal. 80

38 SM Imamuddin, op.cit, hal. 191

39 Ibid, hal. 192

40 Mehdi Nakosteen, op.cit, hal. 269

41 Ahmad Tafsir, Sumbangan Islam kepada Ilmu dan Kebudayaan, (Bandung: Pustaka, 1986), hal. 8-9 diterjemahkan dari Komisi Nasional Mesir untuk UNESCO, Islamic and Arab Contribution to the Eurofean Renaisnce.

42 Ahmad Tafsir, Sumbangan, hal. 8-9

43 Muhammad Iqbal, Ibn Rusyd & Averroisme, op.cit, hal. 80

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