Aneka Ragam Makalah

History of Islam in Indonesia

Islam is a proselytizing religion is religion that must be prepared, transmitted and developed by its adherents in the circumstances anyway. Similarly, what the Muslim traders who also serves as a preacher, with a variety of methods used sought to develop the Islamic wing of the widest to the archipelago. Since Islam arrived in Indonesia until Indonesia's independence adherents grew. Thus making Indonesia the world's number one country whose population is Muslims. How Islam came, was simple paper will try to discuss about the entry of Islam into the archipelago. The process of Islamization of the Islamic empire in the history of the sample.

B. The entry of Islam to Indonesia

History of the introduction of Islam to Indonesia through the preaching of peace and not with the sharpness of the sword. [1] However, as far as the arrival of Islam in indenesia there long discussion and debate among experts, about three main issues, the home of Islam's arrival, the carrier , and time of arrival. [2]

Various theories and discussions that seek to answer three key issues is clearly not finished, not only the lack of data that can support a particular theory, but also because of the unilateral nature of the various existing theories. There is a strong tendency, a certain theory emphasizes only the specific aspects of the three main issues, while ignoring other aspects. [3] and also due to the subjectivity of the author. [4]

Islam spread in India and the Arab semenanjugn up to go to Malaya and Indonesia. In some areas, Islam spread through conquest, but Islam in Southeast Asia spread by traders and Sufi activities. [5] In the literature there are many opinions expressed by experts about the three issues above, but will be presented here only a few issues alone.

A writer of Western nationals, Thomas W. Arnold explained that it has been brought to the archipelago by Arab traders sehak first century Hijra, long before the historical record. This statement is reinforced by the extensive trade by Arabs in the East since the early days of Islam. [6]

In the Tarikh China, in the year 674 AD, there is a record of an Arab leader who heads the group of Arabs and settled on the west coast of Sumatra. Then based on the similarities shared by the school that they (traders and muhballigh) hold, ie Shafi. At that time the Shafi'i school is dominant school of thought on the beach Corromandel Ibn Battuta and Malabor when visiting the region in the 14th century. [7] In the above statement, Arnold said that Arabia is not the only place of origin of Islam brought, but also of Corromander and Malabar.

Another version presented by Azra quoted some opinions and theories of scholars, most Dutch scholars who hold to the theory that Islam entered the archipelago from the continent of India is not a child Persian or Arabic. The first scholar who proposed the theory is Pijnappel, an expert from Leiden. He attributed the origins of Islam in the archipelago by the Gujarat and the Malabar region. According to him, are the ones who bermazhab Shafi'i who migrated and settled in the territory of India which later brought Islam to the archipelago. [8] This theory was developed by Snoujk Hurgronje

Moquetta, another Dutch scholar, based on the results of research concludes bawha place of origin of Islam in the archipelago is Cambay, Gujarat. He berargument that contained both types of tombstones in Pasai and Gresik show the same type as those in Cambay, India. [9]

Above theories look different, but it has some similarities, namely Islam brought by Arab traders and equally embraced Shafi. The difference is, Arnold said that there is a direct merchant of Arabia and from there Corromander and Malabar, while opinions are quoted Azra explains that these traders are from the Indian subcontinent.

In addition, seminars are held in Medan in 1963, 1978 in Banda Aceh, and on 30 September 1980 in Kuala Simpang Overseas entered the history and development of Islam in Indonesia concluded that Islam entered Indonesia on IH-century directly from Arab lands through Aceh. [10] Later the area was first visited by Islam is the coast of Sumatra. The preachers were other than as a religious broadcaster is also a merchant. Islam in Indonesia and broadcasting is done peacefully. [11]

Several other theories, sec-compiled by Muhammad Hasan al-Idrus two different theories to explain the opposite. The first theory is represented by European scholars who explained that Islam was first brought to Indonesia around the 13th century AD, when Marcopolo stop in North Sumatra in 1292 AD [12]

The second theory, the theory is someone that suggested by some Arab and Muslim scholars, among others Dhiya Muhammad 'Abdullah bin Nuh Syahab and who wrote the book al-Islam fi Indonesia, as well as Alwi Sharif ibn Tahir al-Haddad Malaysia Johor Sultanate a mufti in his book entitled Madkhal ila al-Tarikh al-Islam al-Aqsa Syarqi fis, both rejected the theory put forward by Western scholars who say that Islam arrived in Southeast Asia especially in Malaysia and Indonesia in the 13th century AD they believe that Islam arrived in the 7th century AH, as a new Islamic empire in Sumatra at about the end of the 5th century and the H-6 This they affirmed with some evidence suggests, among other things, the history of the life of a propagator of Islam in Java, namely Sheikh Muhammad Ainul Yaqin (Sunan Giri) son Maulana Islam Uluwwul Makhdum born in 1355 in Java. While his father into Java after the entry of al-Husayn Sayrif king of Carmen in 1316 in Java. After that go Raden Rahmat, a propagator of Islam in East Java in Java in 1316. [13]

One more theory cited by Azra is that Islam has masuik to Indonesia since the 13th century H through the persistence of the wandering Sufis and Islam do ataraktiv broadcasting, especially by emphasizing the compatibility of Islam and the community rather than a change in the practice of local beliefs. They also married the daughter of the ruler at that time to facilitate the development of Islam. Another supporting factor is indeed telaha da tasawwuf as a category in the history of Malay literature, especially in the archipelago at that time. [14]

Indonesia version of the theory to explain that Islam into Indonesia brought by the traders from Persia, Arabia and India through important ports such as ports Lamuri in Aceh, Barus and Palembang in Sumatra century IH / 7 M. [15]

 From some of the above theory can be seen that, in fact there are differences among historians in seeing when and where Islam entered the archipelago for the first time. However, these differences did not exist until mengkaburkan about and development of Islam in the archipelago, as one of the region is predominantly Muslim. 

C. The process of Islamization

Islam spread by peaceful means rather than by force especially with the sword. Islam arrived in tune with local culture, Islam does not make radical changes and sporadic, and even used as a stabilizer aoabila stuasi Islam is experiencing political instability due to a power struggle among some circles. [16] Badri Yatim Candarsasmita quoting as saying that Islam in Indonesia penyeberan conducted in a peaceful manner through the following six ways: [17]

A. Trade.

In the early stages, the trade route is the only way the most probable, because the traffic is already crowded trade since the 7th century until the 16th century AD This path is very advantageous because the kings were also involved in this trading activity, even they are the owner of the ship and stock. Furthermore this pathway becomes more important and strategic as they are in part of the authorities, so the Islamification process is more easily accomplished.

 2. Perkawinan 

From an economic standpoint, Muslim traders have a better status than the majority of the indigenous population, so that the indigenous population and especially the king's daughter interested in becoming the wife of the merchant. Before they married, usually daughters Islamicised first. Once they have offspring, with automatic course muslimpun environment and population expanding until they can form a settlement, so in turn formed the Islamic kingdoms. This path is advantageous because the involvement of the palace and his descendants will speed up the process of Islamization. That is done by Raden Rahmat, or Sunan Ampel with Nyai Manil, Sunan Gunung Jati with Kawungten princess, daughter of UB with a lower Campa Raden Fatah (the first king of the kingdom of Demak).

3. Tasawwuf.

Teachers teach tasawwuf or Sufi religious teachings that have been mixed with the culture of the people know before. The preachers are also proficient in science and medicine kebathinan. By the way, and this pathway, menyeber Islam in a way that touches and gives the impression of peace. Among them was Hamza Fansyuri in Aceh, Sekh Lemang Abang and Sunan Stage in Java.

4. Education.

The spread of Islam is also done through access to education, the schools although in a sense simpler. In boarding schools or cottage, the kyiai and teachers teach and spread the teachings of Islam. Students-students who have completed mandatory studies will come out and spread the teachings of Islam. Conth is like boarding schools established by the Sunan Ampel in Ampel, and Sunan Giri Giri on.

5. Arts.

The spread of propaganda through the arts convey the intention is preaching the teachings of Islam through the arts that have been there and known to be close by the local community. In Java, the main media is a puppet, in this case is one of the Sunan Kalijaga sunan skilled puppet plays, each time the audience wants to watch the show, he asked them to utter the creed, but he did say it was a word for people who will go Islam. Furthermore, in every play that is played, such as the Mahabharata and the other story, that he would insert the name of Islam leaders. Without realizing it, to the audience was introduced to some of the teachings of Islam. This method was very effective, because the audience does not feel compelled to follow the preaching and teaching are disseminated through the media puppet.

6. Politics and Power.

In the islands of Maluku and South Sulawesi, most of the population converted to Islam after the king first, so the role and participation of the king greatly assist the process of Islamization in the area. In the eastern part of Indonesia in Sumatra and Java are many Islamic kingdoms that for the sake of political combat non-Islamic empire. The six lines used by the bearer of Islam as if seen riding on the sidelines of an institution that has been known by local people, either through the arts and cultural community.

On the other hand, it turns out the media and this pathway has a weakness, namely the difficulty to distinguish between the teachings of Islam with a story or fairy tale puppet given. But at the moment, this is the most likely and most effective, because it would be very difficult to introduce a new religion of Islam as a religion to people who already have other religious beliefs, especially their belief that it is already highly institutionalized and is down- generations. Adapaun several factors that encourage the development of Islamic societies are as follows:
  • good relationship between the merchant carrier of Islamic teachings with government or local authorities.
  • merchants that do not interfere in political affairs.
  • Muslim merchants were first put into practice the teachings of his religion to himself in interacting with the community.
  • there is no coercion in proselytizing.
  • some privileges of Islam than Hinduism and Buddhism and other religions embraced by the local community. [18]
  •  These factors have attracted local penchant for embracing Islam willingly, in addition to the merchants that compaction of the cluster of islands of the archipelago did not bring their wives or they did not have a wife. This then encourages them to marry native women, and of course their wives are going to convert to Islam, as such, and they will multiply the descendants of the Muslims in the area.
Another similar opinion suggests that at least three determinations accelerate the spread of Islam in Indonesia.

The first is that it teaches monotheism of Islam, this was a new doctrine that is diametrically opposed to public relations as it is a caste system of Hinduism. In addition, Islam also teaches egalitarian (justice), equality and the principle of rationality. Islam never ordered anything that is beyond the reach of its adherents. The second is the flexibility of the teachings of Islam itself, in other words, that religion was a codification of universal truths. For example, there is something that has evolved in society, then Islam will not change spontaneously. But when it is against the teachings of Islam, then this is done the process of Islamization. The third is that Islam is ultimately used against the outer expansion upon them. [19] 

D. Samples Islam Nusantara Empire and achievements.

APRA presence of Muslim traders, they hang out and get married in the end led to the Muslim community and the township at that time. One factor that strengthens the relationship of a community with other communities when it is a common religion. Real form of the relationship is continued propaganda activity they do together. As dilakuka by Fadhilah Khan who came from Pasai to Demak to extend power to the Sunda Kelapa. This condition will certainly give birth to a new society.

 In the political field at that time, the religion of Islam serve as a shield to strengthen itself from the kingdoms of non-Muslims, especially the threatening economic and political fields. Conditions is then encouraged the establishment of Islamic kingdoms in the archipelago. [20] Some of the Islamic empire in Nusantarapun stand, as follows: 

A. Pasai Ocean.

In Sumatra, the Indian empire stood Pasai the first Islamic kingdom in the archipelago. The kingdom is estimated to stand at the beginning or middle of the 13th century AD, as a result of the process of Islamization in coastal areas ever visited by traders, merchants Muslims since the 7th century onward. [21] developed by the Royal Ocean fleet Pasai the sea is big for a moment, which is necessary to monitor the trade in the region. Supervision of trade is the kingdom of the joints, because this is the kingdom of the field to get funds.

Trade is the basis for the relationship between Malacca, China and India as it has made the Indian empire Pasai become a famous and influential empire in Southeast Asia, especially in the 14th century and 15 M. With this condition also can develop Pasai Ocean kingdom teachings of Islam to other areas in the archipelago. In the 14 th century AD, even this kingdom at the center of Islamic study. [22]

2. Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam.

The kingdom is located in what is now known as the Aceh Besar district. Less known when sebanarnya kingdom stands. Anas Mahmud argues that the kingdom of Aceh was founded in the 15th century AD after the fall of the Shah Lamori by Muzaffar (1465-1497 AD), she who built the city of Banda Aceh Darussalam. [23]

 According to Anas, in the reign of Muzaffar Shah, the kingdom of Aceh Darusslam progress in the field of trade, because the Muslim merchants based in Malacca move the center of their activity to the province once occupied by the Portuguese Malacca in 1511 AD Aceh kingdom's heyday occurred in the reign of Sultan Iskandar Muda (1608-1637 AD). During his reign, the kingdom controlled the whole eastern coast of Aceh and West Sumatra. 

Aceh kingdom then ruled by Iskandar Thani who replaced Iskandar Muda. In the few years of his reign, the kingdom of Aceh had been developed in the field of religion. Aceh Darussalam king's death was followed by some disaster, so ahead of the 18th century AD, the sultanate of Aceh had no significant effect. [24]

3. Other royal kingdom.

While on the island of Java is known as a royal standing royal Demak, Sultanate Pajang, Mataram, Cirebon and Banten. While in Borneo Banjar kingdom stands, Kutai in East Kalimantan dab so on. [25]

Demak kingdom is the first Islamic kingdom in Java. Is the first king Raden Fatah. In the run the government, Raden Fatah assisted by some scholars and saints. In the reign of the sultan's third Demak the Sultan Trenggono, Islam began to be developed throughout the island of Java. After Sultan Trenggono killed, he was succeeded by his brother Sunan Prawoto who later killed by Aria Panangsang. Thus ended the kingdom which was later replaced Demak Pajang kingdom under the rule of a successful kill Jake Tingkir Aria Panangsang. [26]

F. Conclusion.

There is some disagreement among scholars about when and where Islam first entered the archipelago. However, the majority of them agree that bringing Islam to the archipelago for the first time is the merchant, though they do not have the same view about the origin of these traders.

Islam in the archipelago is spread in various ways. Some of the main lines of the spread of Islam to do with riding the containers which have been known by local people in the community. Some of the media propaganda that the arts category were memmpunyai weakness where the community is difficult to distinguish the teachings of Islam with the material or performance Dongen alone. This is what makes some of the teachings of Islam mixed with traditional in some areas especially in Java. Entered Islam through peaceful preaching and systems approach to civic culture and existing systems.

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References and footnotes
Bibliography

Abdullah, Taufik, History of the Muslims of Indonesia. New York: MUI, 1991.
Ambary, Hasan Mu'arif, Finding of Civilizations and Historical Archaeological Traces of Islam in Indonesia. London: Logos Discourse Studies, 2001.
Arnold, Thomas W., The Preaching Of Islam, trans. New York: Widiya, 1981.
Aydrus, Muhammad Hasan, The spread of Islam in Asia Tenggra, trans. New York: Lantern: Lamp Bastarima, 1996.
Azra, Azyumardi, Renessaince Islam in Southeast Asia. London: Youth Work Rosda, 1999.
______________, Network Middle East scholar and the archipelago XVII and XVIII century. New York: Mizan, 1998.
Candasasmita, Uka, Indonesia's National History III. Jakarta: Central Library, 1984.
Efendi, and Bakhtiar Ali Fakhri, Spreads a New Way of Islam: Islam Reconstruction of Indonesia's New Order period. New York: Mizan, 1986
Hasjmy, A, History Log, and development of Islam in Indonesia. London: al-Ma'arif, 1993.
_________, Dustur Da'wah. New York: Crescent Star, 1974.
Lapidus, Ira M, Social History of the Muslims, too. Kieraha. New York: King Grafindo Persada, 2000.
Riflefs, MC, History of Modern Indonesia. London: McMillan Education.
Yatim, Badri, History of Islamic Civilization, London: Eagle Press, 2000.

Footnote

[1] Azyumardi Azra, Renessaince Islam in Southeast Asia (New York: Rosda Youth Work, 1999) p. 75-76.
[2] Azyumardi Azra, Network Middle East scholar and the archipelago XVII and XVIII Century (New York: Mizan, 1998) p. 24.
[3] Ibid.
[4] Muhammad Hasan al-Aydrus, The spread of Islam in Asia Tenggra, trans. (New York: Lantern: Lamp Bastarima, 1996) p. 42.
[5] Ira M. Lapidus, Social History of the Muslims, too. Kieraha (New York: King Grafindo Persada, 2000) p. 717.
[6] Thomas W. Arnold, The Preaching Of Islam, trans (New York: Penernit Widiya, 1981) p. 317-318.
[7] Ibid.
[8] Azra, Network Ulama, p. 24.
[9] Hasan Mu'arif Ambary, Finding of Civilizations and Historical Archaeological Traces of Islam in Indonesia (Jakarta: Logos Discourse Studies, 2001) hx
[10] A. Hasjmy, History Log, and development of Islam in Indonesia (London: al-Ma'arif, 1993) p. 48-57.
[11] A. Hasjmy, Dustur Propagation (New York: Crescent Star, 1974) p. 430.
[12] Al-Idrus, The spread of Islam. H. 42-43.
[13] Ibid. h. 42-43. then compare it with the opinion of the MC. Riflefs in his book A History of Modern Indonesia (London: McMillan Education) h. 3, which confirms that the entry of Islam into Indonesia is when Marcopolo stop in Sumatra in 1292 AD Marcopolo, when it meliaht that no stone has been inscribed on the first Islamic kingdom in the Indian Ocean called the Islamic empire in Pasai.
[14] Azra, Networking, p. 32-33.
[15] Taufik Abdullah, History of the Muslims of Indonesia (Jakarta: MUI, 1991).
[16] Uka Candasasmita, Indonesia's National History III (New York: Central Library, 1984) p. 26.
[17] Badri Yatim, History of Islamic Civilization (New York: Eagle Press, 2000) p. 201-202.
[18] Wan Azmi Hussein, Islam in Aceh: Going And Growing. In A. Hasjmy, Dustur. H. 182.
[19] Fakhri and Bakhtiar Ali Efendi, Spreads a New Way of Islam: Islam Reconstruction of the New Order Indonesia (London: Mizan, 1986) p. 32.
[20] Badri, History, p. 224-225.
[21] Ibid. h. 205-206.
[22] Hasjmy, Dustur, p. 427.
[23] Anas Mahmud, Up The fall in the Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam on the East Coast of Sumatra island, in A. Hasjmy, History, p. 286.
[24] Badri, History, p. 210.
[25] Ibid.
[26] Ibid. h. 312.
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