Aneka Ragam Makalah
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Indonesia is a nation of religious people. Nation that has embraced the belief in religion. Indonesia has some religion, and Islam is the religion of the most adherents. However, the historical journey of Islamic religious education does not correspond with what is expected. There are always obstacles and hurdles of the various parties who do not want the Islamic educational progress. In education for example, religious education was not originally included in the public schools. This is because of the unwillingness of some parties to include religious instruction in public education. They assume that only the affairs of religious education parents in the home, not in school. Religious education which in essence was faith, Shari'ah, charity should be taught to every student. [1]

If only religious education is given to students in schools, it is feared our generation has no moral and religious foundations. As we see today, that many deviations such as corruption and other crimes caused by a lack of moral hany found in religious studies from childhood. Seeing these conditions, the religious education should be incorporated into every public school from primary to college level.

This problem is very interesting for we discussed. So in this paper, speakers will discuss the dynamics of historical and religious education in public schools before independence and after independence.

Historicity and the Dynamics of Religious Education in Public Schools 
Religious education before independence 

Dutch colonized Indonesia for 350 years. As long as it is also the Dutch controlled Indonesia with policies made to suppress the people of Indonesia. Therefore when the Dutch colonial successfully drove the nails in the archipelago with a dual mission, which is between imperialism and Christianity is very much overturning all the existing order.

Admittedly, the Netherlands has a lot of coloring the history of Islam in the archipelago. Started arriving as traders individually, and then became a trade union that we are familiar with the VOC. Their presence as occupiers met with resistance from the indigenous population, the kings and religious leaders of Indonesia. But to survive on Indonesia, the only way is by pressing the step movement of Islam as the religion of most of the indigenous population.

On the one hand the arrival of the Dutch brings fresh air to Indonesia, because the technology is getting advanced. However, progress is only apparent enjoyment of exhaled Dutch to the natives. Real progress is to increase the colony. The Netherlands is not very manly when Indonesia invaded. Very different from other invaders like the British. Although the British ruled Malaysia, Singapore, Hongkong and so on, but does not deny aspects of their education so that colonies are more advanced than the Dutch occupied Indonesia.

According to KH Zainuddin was quoted by Hasbullah Zuhri, that the people of Indonesia that the majority of Islamic people do not view it as an adherent of the West and the colonists, they were the imperialists, they do not care they are Catholics or Protestants. Inside the chest is so strong colonial doctrine of fraudulent cunning politician Machiavelli, among others, to teach [2]:
  • Religion is necessary for the colonial government (colonial).
  • Religion is used to tame and subdue the people.
  • Every religious sects that are considered false by followers of the religion must be taken to divide and that they do to seek help to the government.
  • Promise to be honored if the people do not have to hurt.
  • Goal can justify any means. 
Dutch politics is controlled by Indonesia. But many accepted the challenge and the resistance of the Indonesian nation itself. So also with the education, the Netherlands introduced a new system and methodology and of course more effective, but it was all done just to generate forces that help all interests in exchange for the colonizers very cheap when compared with those who have to bring in workers from the West.

Dutch policy in regulating the course of education course intended for their own interests, especially for the benefit of the Christian religion. It is evident, for example, when Van Den Boss became Governor-General in Jakarta in 1831, out of wisdom that schools and churches are considered necessary as the government schools. Was the department which administers education and religion rolled into one. While the residency is established in every area of ​​Christian religious schools. [3] It is clear seen that although the Dutch set up educational institutions for the natives, but it is for their benefit alone. Islamic religious education in schools, mosques and other prayer room or no thought to help the Dutch government. The students still hut latin considered illiterate if not the Dutch government schools in the school that became the size on the time.

This is the Dutch government against the people of Indonesia is only a fear of Islam. Christian religious education they bring to the Netherlands must apply hard with Islamic education. Hostility towards the development of Islamic religious education can be seen from any policies that they make very discriminating the native population are Muslim majority. These policies include:

In 1882, the Dutch government established a special body to oversee the Islamic education and religious life which they call priesterraden. From the advice of this body, then in 1905 the Dutch government issued new regulations that the person providing the content of teaching or preaching the religion of Islam must first ask permission to the Dutch government. [4] This policy is called the ordinance of teachers 1905: "every non-priest Christians must get permission from the native chiefs before he could give religious instruction ". [5]

Then came another teacher ordinance in 1925 that contains several chapters of which are [6]: Article 1: Any person who intends to give religious instruction to anyone outside the family (her) own, are required before doing so to notify the intention in writing. Article 2: a). Religious teachers or preachers or preachers still must have a letter of identification that can only be administered by the agency that oversees indigenous native rulers.

b). Religious teachers and students are required to maintain records of what lessons given to him, and indigenous agencies have the right to check the records every time.

These regulations may be caused by the movement of Islamic educational organization that has seemed to grow like Muhammadiyah, Syarikat Party of Islam, Al-Irsyad, NU, and others. [7] The organization was also established in addition to setting up madrasas public schools from primary level to the upper level, in which the teaching of religious subjects. As Muhammadiyah who teaches Islamic religious education as much as 4 hours a week of subjects at every level of education. [8]

Ordinance was felt by the religious teachers are very heavy, even more so for religious teachers who have not had the school administration. This ordinance received a strong reaction from Muslims such as Al-Islam congress in Bogor in 1926 refused to supervise the religious education. Muhammadiyah also in the XVIII Congress in 1928 with very strong demand that teachers ordinance is withdrawn. [9]

Dutch colonial fears due to the emergence of nationalism-Islamism movement of the Youth Pledge of 1928, and the movement of a greater unity, the Dutch made the policy back in 1932 that it could combat rules and close the madrassas and schools that do not have permission or giving lessons not favored by the Dutch government called the ordinance a wild school (school wilde ordanantie). [10]

In addition to the environmental life of the Christian religion Indonesia which always gets a reaction from the people, and to maintain and prevent the entry of religious instruction in public schools a Muslim majority, the Dutch government passed a law called the Neutral Religion. Namely that the government is not impartial to any one religion that government schools do not teach religion. And government to protect places of religious worship (chapter 173-174 Indies Regeling Staat). [11]

However, this policy is purely political in nature. In writing, it seemed to be having none of it with religious matters, but in contrast to reality. It has been several times in the People's Council proposed that included Islamic religious instruction as a subject in public universities, but such proposals have been rejected by the Dutch. Until the end of Dutch rule religious teachings are never included any of the subjects of public schools. In the private schools have also added the teaching of religion, but students are free to not follow the religion lesson if their parents objected. [12]

Meanwhile, Islamic education in the Japanese colonial era is loose compared to the Dutch colonial. Japan's entry into Indonesia in 1942 after driving the Netherlands unconditionally. At first, the Japanese government appeared as if defending the interests of Islam, but it was the Japanese strategy to recruit / use the power of Islam to deal with the second world war. To approach the Muslims, the Japanese took some policies, such as:

Office of Religious Affairs (KUA) which at the time of the Dutch called Voor Islamitische Kantoor Saken led by the Dutch orientalist people, transformed by the Japanese into Shumubi office led by Islamic scholars themselves, namely KH. Hashim Ash'ari of Jombang and in areas formed Shumuka.

Public schools be taught manners that it is identical with the teachings of religion.
The Japanese government allowed the establishment of Islamic high school in Jakarta, led by KH. Wahid Hashim, Kahar Muzakkir, and Bung Hatta. [13] 

Religious education after independence

As said earlier, that Indonesia is a religious nation. Evidenced by the presence of traces of this heritage shows. On June 1, 1945 in advance of Business Investigation Agency Preparation of Indonesian Independence (BPUPKI), Sukarno, who later became the first president of Indonesia said that the importance of Indonesia godless nation, Indonesia and invited all people to practice the religion of the faith.

Post-independence Indonesia proclaimed, then the next on August 18, 1945 ditetaplah a principle that puts Belief in God Almighty as the first principle of Pancasila, as the manifestation of the religious attitude to life. In addition to Article 29 UUD 1945 which describes:

Paragraph 1: State based upon the belief in God Almighty

Verse 2: The State guarantees the independence of each resident to embrace their respective religions and to practice the religion or belief.

Then to realize that religious attitudes in the nation and state, then on January 3, 1946 the government established the Ministry of Religious Affairs. The main task of this department is taking care of matters pertaining to religious life for the people of Indonesia. One of them is related to religious education. The scope of religious education which is managed by the Department of Religion is not confined to religious schools only, pesantren and madrasah, but also about religious education in public schools. [14]

Actually carry out the demands for religious education in public education has been started by the Central Indonesian National Committee (BPKNIP), on December 27, 1945 the mengususlkan to the ministry of education to pay attention to religious instruction, and in order to obtain material assistance from the government. Karel A Steenbrink further explain the proposal to the ministry of national education BPKNIP, among which is [15]:
  • Religious instruction in all schools, given at school.
  • The government paid teachers
  • To the elementary schools of education is given from the class IV
  • Education is held once a week at certain hours 
In December 1946 issued two Joint Regulation of the Minister, the ministers of religion to the minister of education and teaching which stipulates that religious education given from class IV SR (grammar school) to class VI, but has not done well. Meanwhile, some areas outside of Java such as Sumatra has given religious instruction from class I SR. In this area Muhamud Yunus as head of the Islamic Religious Affairs Bureau Sumatra province, proposed to the Bureau of PP K Abdullah Nawawi Sumatra province, that religious instruction be included in the list of public schools teaching starts from the SR, junior high through high school.

In the seventh place 194 years of education and teaching conferences that produce religious education incorporated into the public schools are two hours in each class. [16] implemented in the early religious education at primary, middle and top and no statutory .4 in 1950 on the basics of education and religious instruction in schools address the issue of religious education in schools to parents of students determine whether their children will follow the pelajaan. [17]

Joint Regulation of the Ministry of Education, Teaching and Culture and Religious Affairs issued on January 20, 1951 provides that:

Religious education given from class IV SR
In junior high school and above level (general and vocational) given religious education as much as 2 hours a week.

Religious education provided to students at least 10 people dalamsatu class and received permission from a parent / guardian. Diving course of religious students, students of other faiths may leave the study room.

Appointment of teachers of religion, the cost of religious education and minister of religious education is borne by the Ministry of Religious Affairs [18].

Then in 1960 the plenary siding MPRS set of religious instruction given to public schools from elementary through university, with the condition that they obtain permission from parents. In 1966 the People's Consultative Assembly convened again and eliminate the requirement in the 1960 MPRS. In 1967 the MPRS decree in 1960 changed again to require the students to follow the teaching / study of religion, and not allow them to not follow it. Since then the teaching of religion plays an important role in students and student research.
In the colonial period religion has no place in public schools. Religious education be given only by the family, not in school. Dutch are very heavily hindered the development of religious education in public schools because in addition to colonize the territory, the Dutch also brought Christianizing mission in Indonesia. Then, after independence the existence of religious education in public schools gradually received attention. This is evident from the policies made ​​by the Government of the Republic of Indonesia from year to year has a very significant change. So that eventually the law no. 20/2003 religious education was held not only by government but the society, and religion has been allowed to berpartisifasi conducting a through formal, nonformal and informal. 
A. Steenbrink, Karel, school, Madrasah, School, New York: LP3ES, 1986 
Djamal, Pure, DR. H. Abdul Karim Amrullah: Influence of the Islamic Reform Movement in Minang Kabau In Early 20th Century, Jakarta: INIS. 2002
Hasbullah, History of Islamic Education in Indonesia: Trails History Growth and Progress, London: King Grafindo Persada, 1995
Mukhtar, Islamic Religious Education Learning Design, London: Misika Galiza, 2003
Infrastructure Project Development Facility and colleges Religion / IAIN, History of Islamic Education, Jakarta: Directorate General of Islamic Institutional Development, 1986
Daulay son, Haidar, History of Growth and Renewal of Islamic education in Indonesia, New York: Library Media Cita, 2001
-------------------------- Historicity and existence of school, School and Madrasah, New York: Tiara Wacanayogya, 2001
------------------------- The Dynamics of Islamic Education, New York: Library Media Cita, 2004
Saleh, Abdur Rahman, The Son of Madrasah Education: Vision, Mission, and Intellect, London: King Grafindo Persada, 2004
Tafsir, Ahmad, Islamic Religious Education Special methodical, London: Youth Work Rosda
Law on National Education System and its implementation regulations, Jakarta: Graphic Sinar, 1993
Yunus, Mahmud, History of Islamic Education in Indonesia, Jakarta: Great Work Hida, 1993
Zuhairini et al, History of Islamic Education, New York: Literacy, 1997.

See the development of each policy, the more religious separtinya obtain a solid place in the organizational structure of government and in society at large. In the Assembly siding menyususun GBHN in 1973-1978 and 1983 has always affirmed that religious education be a compulsory subject in state schools at all levels (levels) of education. It can be seen in the TAP MPR 1983 on the religious GBHN 1c and 1d points, as follows:
1c. With the increasing and widespread development, then the religious life and trust God Almighty should be more practiced, both in our personal and social life of society.
1d. Growing cultivated the necessary facilities for the development of religious life and belief in God Almighty lives, including religious education to be included in school curricula from primary to the university seklah country [19].
In Law No 2 1989 article 39 (2) explained that religious education is an effort to strengthen the faith and devotion to God Almighty according to the religion professed by the students in question with respect to demands for respect for other religions in the relationship between religious harmony in the society to achieve national unity [20].

Dynamic development of religious education are constantly gets attention, not only as an organizer of the government but the society and religious groups are encouraged to provide religious education. This was stated in the Law. 20 of 2003 section 30 which reads:
Verse 1: Education organized by the government and religious or community and religious groups in accordance with statutory regulations.
Verse 2: Religious Education prepares students to be functioning members of society who understand and practice the values ​​of their religion and become a theologian.
Verse 3: Religious Education can be held in the formal education, non-formal and informal.
Verse 4: Religious Education form Diniyah education, boarding schools, pasranan pabhaja novices, and similar forms. [21]

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[1] Mukhtar, Islamic Religious Education Learning Design, cet. 2 (New York: Misaka Galiza, 2003), p. 36.

[2] Hasbullah, History of Islamic Education in Indonesia: Trails History of Growth and Development (New York: King Grafindo Persada, 1995), p. 49.

[3] Ibid., P. 51.

[4] Ibid., P. 52.

[5] Pure Djamal, DR. H. Abdul Karim Amrullah: His influence in the Islamic Reform Movement in Minang Kabau in Early 20th Century (Jakarta: INIS, 2002), p. 106.

[6] Ibid., P. 108-109.

[7] Zuhairini, et al., History of Islamic Education, cet. 5 (New York: Literacy, 1997), p. 149.

[8] Hasbullah, History, p. 101.

[9] Haidar's son Daulay, History of Growth and Renewal of Islamic Education in Indonesia (New York: Library Media Cita, 2001), p. 39.

[10] Hasbullah, History, p. 52.

[11] Zuhairini, et al., History, p. 150.

[12] Ahmad Tafsir, methodical Special Islamic Education (New York: Rosda Youth Work, nd), p. A.

[13] Hasbullah, History, p. 65.

[14] Haidar's son Daulay, historicity and the Existence of School, School and Madrasah (New York: Tiara Wacanayogya, 2001), p. 51-52.

[15] Karel A. Steenbrink, school, Madrasah, School (New York: LP3ES, 1986), p. 91.

[16] Mahmud Yunus, History of Islamic Education in Indonesia, (Jakarta: Great Work Hida, 1993), p. 128-129

[17] Haidar's son Daulay, Dynamics of Islamic Education, (New York: Heritage Media Cita, 2004), p. 147

[18] See Zuraini et al, History of Islamic Education, p. 154, and see also Karel A. Steenbrink, Pesantren Madrasah School, h. 92.

[19] Project Development Facility, and Means Higher Education Religious / IAIN, History of Education Isalam, (Jakarta: Directorate General of Islamic Institutional Development, 1986), p. 239

[20] Law on National Education Sitem and its implementation regulations, Cet. 4, (New York: Graphic Light, 1993)., Pp. 41-42

[21] Abdur Rahman Saleh, Madrasah Nations Children's Education: Vision, Mission, and Intellect, Ed. 1, Cet. 1, (New York: King Grafindo Persada, 2004), p. 325-326

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