Aneka Ragam Makalah

Pattern of Public Relations


B. Pattern of Public Relations

By instinct that humans are creatures who have a desire to live in a society, that every human being has the desire to get together and make the relationship between human beings. Where there are people there is no law (ius Ibi Societas Ubi) expression of Cicero says about 2,000 years ago. [1] The same expression has also been mentioned by LJ Van Apeldoorn, in another version he said: "Recht is er over de gehele wereld, overal, waar een samenleving vanmensen is "(the law contained in every human society, however simple these people). [2] In accordance with the expression of Cicero and LJ Van Apeldoorn is, along with the social conditions prevailing in the society there.

Collection of human unity with each other or make contact with each other is called "society". So the society is formed when two or more persons living together, so that in their social life or relationships arise which lead to their linkage to know each other and influence each other

However simple and moderennya society, the very significant presence of norms, [3] the norms fixed as an absolute must have on society. To that end, the rule of law and other norms in the society aim for balance, harmony and prosperity of human relations community dam.

Furthermore, as already explained earlier that, the multi-ethnic city of Medan which has a characteristic style and variety. It is a proof that the condition is closely related to the condition of society at large in the main, so that migrants choose their motives, according to the character and circumstances.

For example, the Minangkabau people migrated to the Deli in addition to trade, they also brought a renewal, in accordance with the conditions and habits which they profess. Mayorotas Minangkabau migrants is to enrich and strengthen the Minangkabau nature. Temporary migrants tend to accentuate ethnic Batak tribe, clan by clan that is so typical.

Of ethnic groups in the city of Medan, the nomads are usually mainly nomads and Mandailing Minangkabau (Batak) consider themselves more educated than the host of the Malays. Minang refused to assimilate to Malay Muslim culture, also with a group begutu Mandailing (Batak) has been formally assimilate themselves into the culture of the Malay Muslim even if only on the surface, such as wearing the Malay language, menaggalkan merga names or their Batak and Malay nation they finally confessed.

While the Minagkabau reject Islamic practices are carried out by ethnic Malays. In contrast, those with reformist organizations Islamiyah itself, against the legitimacy of the Islamic concept of Malay society. But the thing that is significant to note is, Malay ethnic group, as the host (host population) do not have the strength of socio-demokrafik made himself into a dominant host populations such as ethnic Sunda in Bandung, because not ethnic Malays mayorotas in Medan.

Due to the multi-ethnic city of Medan varaian led to a variety of nature and culture that has its own existence. Kepluralistikan due to ethnic, must have differences and similarities. Although there is a glimpse of the equation, but each mempuanyai special features, this is due to the different regions, languages ​​and customs. Different customs. Moreover, over each of these communities do not feel affiliated with each other, in accordance with the sentiments themselves.

Meanwhile, according to Kuncoro patrician, in his work entitled, Social Anthropology, said that to distinguish one community to another except for the fact that there are differences, it is determined by the sentiment of unity within each group or community. [4]

Then, to follow up the opinion of the noble Kuncoro above, in this case is very important to talk about the pattern of public relations, for it was associated with so-called social interaction. Such interactions are a major factor in people's lives, a common form of social processes is the social interaction (which can also be called a social process), because social interaction is a key condition of social activities. social interaction is social relations concerning the dynamic relationship between individual people, advance of human groups, and between individuals in human groups.

The course of an interaction didasrakan on various factors, including factors imitation, suggestion, identification and sympathy. These factors can move independently and separately incorporated in the state. When viewed more in the imitation factor, for example, has a very important role in the process of social interaction. [5]



C. Pattern of Religious Life Communities

To determine the effect of religion on society, there are three aspects that are very significant for dikatahui, ie cultural, social, and personality. The third aspect is a complex social phenomenon and an integrated effects can be observed in human behavior. In this regard, Nottingham [6] describes in general about the relationship between religion and society which he divided kaepada three TIPA, the condition seems to follow that type of process Komte Agus concept formation stages of the community.

In line with the above explanation, it would need to see more about the lifestyle of the religious city of Medan. As mentioned earlier that, the city of Medan is a city which is too heterogeneous, in this case including the religious sector and cultural fields. As a heterogeneous community or menganur definitely have a different religion. Among the five recognized religions, Islam is the religion of the most widely embraced by the city of Medan, then followed the Christian religion, Protestant, Buddhist and Hindu. In restructuring the religious lifestyle of the city of Medan-paced society in the religious compound, the significant presence of fostered and encouraged inter-religious harmony adanaya.

In order for inter-religious harmony, Hugh Goddard, a British Christian, a Muslim theologian, reminds, that the harmony among people berama harsu avoided the use of "double standards" (double standars). Christians or Muslims, for example, always apply different standards for themselves, usually shown to be ideal standards and normative. While other religions, they memakia other standards are realistic and a more historical. Through this double standard, emerging theological prejudices which further muddy the inter-religious relations. Whether or not there salvation in any other religion, is often determined by our views on the double standard. The belief that religion itself is the most correct because it comes from God, while other religious human being is just construction. [7]

However, if in terms of religious harmony for the people of this city of Medan, strongly supports the creation of inter-religious harmony. This impression of people who are very enthusiastic in realizing the creation of harmony which always longed for peace and security. So avoid the chaos and violence that cause great concern leading up to the dispute or difference of religious beliefs.

When viewed from the social structure of society, often distinguished between two kinds of issues that arise of the pattern of religious life that is among the issues ansich (scientifis or social problems). With social problems (ameliorative or social problems). [8] The first concerns the analysis of the various symptoms of community life. While the second examines the abnormal symptoms in order to improve or even to eliminate them.

This review would very urgent, that is highlighted in the scope of the sociology of notabenenya kaijian search for the common problems in society with a view to finding and interpreting the realities of social life. While the sequel is part of the social perekerjaan (social work). In other words, strive for understanding the basic forces behind the social code of conduct.



D. Propagation Methods

Methodology (method) derived from the Greek, which consists of methodos (way / path) and logos (theory / knowledge skewering). Methodology can be interpreted in a simple study of the method in general, whether or not the scientific method. But the method is studied in methodology means something procedures, techniques or roads that have been designed or used in the intellectual process in order to obtain knowledge of any kind. [9]

For more details of this discussion of the methods referred to here are methods of propaganda. Etymologically the word propaganda comes darai said:

دعا, يدعو, دعوة.

It means: call, invite, summon. While the `ah according Juama amain Abdul Aziz in his book" Addakwah Qawa `id wa Usul", providing a sense of mission etymologically contains some terms which are:

A. an-Nida ', which means calling

2. ad-Du `a, which means calling and pushing on something

3. ad-Da `wah ila qadhiyah which means it is asserted and defended, either right or wrong

4. An attempt to pull the deeds of human speech into a sect or a religion. Beg or ask for kindness.

Meanwhile, according to termonologi or in terms, put forward by Endang sebagimana Saefuddin, he shares in the narrow sense preaching Islam means submission to men, either orally or in writing or painting (call and a call to the people of Islam). Semanatara dakwah dalam arti luas yakni penjabaran, penterjemahan dan pelaksanaan Islam dalam prikehidupan dan kehidupan manusia (termasuk di dalamnya politik, ekonomi, sosial, pendidikan ilmu penegetahun, kekeluargaan dan sebaginya).[10]

Syekh Ali Mahfudz di dalam karyanya yang berjudul “Hidayatul Mursyidin memberikan pengertian bahwa “mengajak manusia kepada kebaikan dan petunjuk (Allah) dan menyeru berbuat ma`ruf dan mencegah dari perbuatan yang munkar, agar meraka memperoleh kebahagiaan di dunia dan di akhirat.

Selanjutnya A. Hasyimi dalam bukunya “Dustur Dakwah Menurut al-Qur`an “ memberikan penretian dakwah itu adalah “mengajak orang untuk meyakini dan mengamalkan aqidah dan syari`ah Islamiyah yang terlebih dahulu diyakini dan diamalkan pendakwah itu sendiri.[11]

From the definition above it is clear that the mission is to mengatarkan men to happiness as mentioned dala al-Qur `an in a letter Yunus verse 25:

والله يدعوا الى دار السلام

Meaning: God is calling them to a Darussalam (Surah Yunus: 25).

The definition above can be understood that the mission is to formulate an Islamic undertakings in all aspects of life of individuals, families, communities and the lives of diverse, so the activity is to preach human activities that can implement and execute tasks as a servant of God tuganya on earth .

Given pentinganya a missionary activity as well as a liability in the mengemaban sutau amar ma `ruf nahi evil. Therefore the word of Allah through his word has been giving out the formula or method of preaching in general. Then God gave it to man wewenagn (Muslim) through the message of His Apostles for preaching or teaching of Islam mengemabangkan the plenary in accordance with local conditions and circumstances as well as mission field itself. In the al-Qur `an Allah explains that the mission should provide a sensible way, then advised him gently and with a fine or ma` ruf. This is consistent with what is stated in his word, which reads:

ادع الى سبيل ربك بالحكمة والموعظة الحسنة (النحل).

Meaning: Take to the road by way of thy Lord is wise, good advice and a good way berdebatlah (Surat an-Nahl: 125).

From the description of the verse, looks to the provision of the general method of propagation is:

A. bil wisdom, the wise

2. Want bil `izatil hasanah is by teaching or good neshat

3. Mujadalah bil is a good discussion or dialogue.

The mufassirin explains that wisdom is the descriptions and explanations can be assured that once can eliminate doubt someone in the running order or the teachings of Islam. While not a description of `izatil hasanah, guidance and advice that can open doors and awaken the heart to obey the teachings of Islam. Semenrata diolog mujadalah is doing by making a convincing argument.

In order to implement the things mentioned above, the pera da `i is required to possess specialized scientific and scholarly support, and finally through a method or technique that can either deliver propaganda to the real purpose.

Special science in question is a science-related social problems, such as psychology, anthropology, sociology and others. Science is used as a means to determine and establish the method to be applied.

Conditionally, each group of people who are on that has a characteristic of Regional respectively. By the ingredients that are generally the methods outlined in the letter an-Nahl of the above will require the development of mission-oriented objke pass over terrain that is a different mission.

The third basic principle disclosed in the above paragraph needs to be described in detail the methods not only regarding the level of intelligence is shared in the sense of high class, classes and groups that lay in between. However, it should also consider other factors such as economic strata, financial, educational level, religion location of residence, attitude towards Islam and other groups so forth.

Background who has described, is essential to put forward a cursory calm pengembnagan aspects of propagation methods that have been described in al-Qur `an is a way to give further details of the methods of propaganda, but in this case will be described in the next section on Subtitle rethorika method later.

Propaganda as a aktvitas who have religious and sacred values ​​must have a specific purpose. Another goal is to provide direction or guidance for the laughter step missionary activity. For without a clear goal of all activities will preach in vain. According Asmuni Syukir, there are two purposes of propaganda. First, the general purpose of proselytizing, which invites mankind to the right path in order to live happily in this world and hereafter. Second, invite people who have converted to Islam to constantly improve the worship of God, fostering mental religion for people who still convert, invites human beings that have not been faithful to God, and to educate and teach children not to deviate from nature.

In preaching must have a strategy and methods, in order to achieve the objectives as mentioned above. Propagation method is merupaka a major element in the implementation of the mission. If the methods are not appropriate then will find sutau failure or the results are not satisfactory. For that significant to find the best methods and quality.

Nevertheless, it should be mentioned briefly how the views of experts mission in dividing the propagation method itself. According to the KI MA Machfoeld split method [12] The mission was to be four methods. First, the method of pattern, the pattern method is referred to the community memperlihatakan Islamic lifestyle with the behavior without giving a lecture and take the verses of al-Qur `an and Hadith as lecture material. Second, clinical methods, namely preaching delivered in person through an approach that is polite and courteous. Third, the method degelan, namely preaching and giving lectures delivered by melui expression through the body or other props. Fourth, the method of propagation of the Prophet, the method is a method that session, all the methods mentioned above are used by the Prophet, but in practice there are several phases, namely phase clandestinely, open phase or overt as well as violent phase. This third phase should be done if all the methods or the road has been stalled. [13]

Other experts say such Asmuni Syukir explained that there are seven methods: First, the lecture method, this is a technique or method of propagation which are colored by talking by a da `i at a missionary activity. Keduan, frequently asked questions, the meaning of this method is that the delivery of material by way of propaganda mensugesti mentakan audience for something that feels masalh belaum dimenegrti and da `i as answering. Third, through the method of debate, the method is in essence seeking mencarai substantial truth or Islamic law. Fourth, interpersonal conversations, this is a condition that termodivikasi to build an openness between a da `i with other individuals on the mission object. Fifth, the method of demonstration, these conditions will make it easier for the audience to understand what is presented to show that something, as an example to demonstrate, both berupan object, event or an act. Sixth, the method of propagation of the Prophet himself. In communicating the message the Prophet preaching there by stealth and openly there, and there juiga by invasion or war. Seventh, the method or silaturrahmi visits (home visit). [14]

Koentjaraningrat comment about them, in his research methods community, expressed in terms of actual words, that the method is merupan way or road, in the understanding of the target object in a related science. Such as in this case the object is related to the mission, then that becomes the central focus dalah methods in preaching.

To master the methods mentioned above, Abdul Kadir Munsyi suggested that attention to the following:

One. Control of an issue that will be presented with the best possible

Two. Give freedom of opinion to the board to issue the opinion

Three. Do not be a question and answer in order to stay on an issue discussed

Four. That not all members dared to opinion



Thus, the meaning of propaganda as a medium and a method that is so perfect, then the meaning is the mission-oriented activities penegembangan Muslim community, among others, in the form of increased social welfare. For Muslims, the idea of ​​community development as part of the scope of da'wah is not another idea just introduced in the mission. He is the reappearance of what is actually designated by the term propaganda ever covered by the dominance of the political-religious makana, when perpetuated for the benefit polotik. [15]

All that has been described above regarding the methods of propaganda and all sorts of meanings, is sutu step or how to be and must be applied properly. In tatar ideally, without the propagation process and the search for the perfect method, as a devout follower of Islam must run all the commands of God and away from any ban. For God and His Rsul has given a direction or guidance in the form of al-Qur `an and Sunnah. Naturally, that means that the Prophet once said: "I leave to you the two cases (inheritance), you will not be lost for ever, as long as you stick to them, namely al-Qur` an and the Prophet's sunnah. (Muslim).

Prophet Muhammad and the teachings of shari'ah `atnya have an obligation to determine whether it is a vertical well that is horizontal. Vertically humans have an absolute obligation to obey all the commandments of God and leave all of his ban. While humans have to interact horizontally among humans by the rules of religion or shari'ah `at Islam. However, behind all that Allah commands and larangannye mengakjak also ordered others to do good, in other words take the right path by way of preaching. For that would make the method and significant in the way of preaching, as described above.

Therefore, it is probably in this very important discussion about the source contains both from al-Qur `an as-Sunnah and the Prophet about the urgency of preaching the basics related to amar ma` ruf nahi evil, it is also a major task of human Brazilians in carry out the mandate of God, the verse and the hadith is as follows:

Many verses are explained on orders enjoining evil, but I'll just list a few verses to remember the limitations. The verses are:

The first paragraph

ومن أحسن قولا ممن دعاإلى الله وعمل صالحاوقال اننى من المسلمين.

"And who better words than those who call (men) to Allah and the pious and charitable mengrjakan said," I am among those who have surrendered (Muslims). "(Fu ¡¡physical defect: 33). [16]

The second paragraph

وذكرفإن الذكر تنفع المؤمنين.

"And give the warning, the warning was actually beneficial for the believers." (Az-Zariyat: 55). [17]
The third paragraph

ولتكن منكم أمة يدعون الى الخير ويأمرون بالمعروف وينهون عن المنكروأولئك هم المفلحون.

"And let none of you are calling a class of people (people) to goodness, sent to the kindness and prevent it from being unjust, and they're the lucky ones." (Ali 'Imron: 104). [18]
The fourth paragraph

كنتم خيرأمة اخرجت للناس تأمرون بالمعروف وتنهون عن المنكر وتؤمنون بالله.

"You guys are the best to the people who were born to a human, you have (do) the good and forbid from munkar and you believe in Allah." (Ali 'IMR ± n: 110). [19]

The fifth paragraph

يايهاالذين أمنوا إن تنصرواالله ينصركم ويثبت اقدامكم.

"O ye who believe! If you help (religion) of Allah, He will help you and He will strengthen your steps (on top of your enemies). "(Mu ¥ ammad: 7). [20]

1.hadist Prophet. Reaffirming the importance of Amar Makrf Nahi wrongdoing.

Many ¥ Adis describing makrf amar nahi evil, so I'll just list some of ¥ Adis as a legal basis.

| Adis first

عن ابى سعيد الخدرى رضىالله عنه سمعت رسول الله ص. م. يقول من رأى منكم منكرا فليغير بيده فإن لم يستطع فبلسانه إن لم يستطع فبقلبه وذلك اضعف الإيمان.

Of Ab Sa'id al-Khudr ³ ra. said, I heard the Messenger of Allah. said, "Whoever saw a misguidance performed in front of him then let him avoid the hand, if unable then with his tongue forbid, if unable to let him feel hate in his heart, and this is the least of weak faith." (Narrated by Muslim , at-Tirmidhi, Ibn M ± face, and an-Nasa'i). [21]

The second hadith

عن النعمان بن بشررضى الله عنه عن النبى صلى الله عليه وسلم قال مثل القائم بحدودالله والواقع فيهاكمثل قوم استهمواعلى سفينةفصاربعضهم اعلاهاوبعضهم اسفلهافكان اللذى فى اسفلها اذااستقوامن الماءمرواعلى من فوقهم فقالوالواناخرقنافى نصيبناخرقاولم نؤذ من فوقنافان تركواهم وماارادواهلكواجميعاوان اخذواعلى ايديهم نجواونجواجميعا. (رواه البخارى والترمذى)

Of Nukman ra ibn Bashir. of Mu ¥ ammad the Prophet of Allah said, "The likeness of a person residing within the limits of Allah swt. and those who violate the constraints of his, are like the two groups of people who ride a boat. One group sat on the top and the other on the bottom (belly) of the boat. So how it is, if the group is located in the bowels of the boat above the water it requires, then they said, "If we need water, we can punch in our bgian this, and do not need to bother the people at the top." If the above let them, then everything would be damned (sink). And if the above prevent them then everything will be safe. "(Narrated by al-Bukh r ± ³ ³ and at-Tirmiz). [22]

The third hadith

عن عائشة رضها قالت دخل على النبى ص م فعرفت فى وجهه ان قد حضره شيئ فتوضأ وماكلم احدا فلصقت بالحجرة اسمع ما يقول فقعد على المنبرف 81;مدالله وأثنى عليه وقال يايهاالناس ان الله تعالى يقول لكم مروا بالمعروف وانهوا عن المنكرقبل ان تدعوا فلاعجيب لكم وتسئلونى فلا أعطيكم وتستنصرونى فلا انصركم فما زادعليهن حتى نزل.

Of A'ishah. say, one day the Holy Prophet. came into my house and from the look on his face I knew that something had happened to him. He immediately ablutions without speaking to anyone, then he would go to the mosque and sat on the pulpit. I pressed my ear to the wall to hear what he sabdakan. He prayed to Allah Almighty praise. then berkhutbah, "O people, verily Allah has said to you:" Have the man to do good and forbid them from kemungkaran, before his time comes where you pray, but I do not answer your prayer, you ask me, but I will not give, and ask help from me, but I'm not going to help you. "Beliaupun not add to his speech that he will descend from the pulpit." (Narrated by Ibn face, and Ibn M ± | ± n IBB). [23]

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References and Footnote
[1] See Suparman Usman, Islamic Law: Principles and Introduction to Islamic Law in Indonesia Governance Law, Gema Media Pratama, Jakarta, 2001. Thing., 65.

[2] See Soerjono Soekanto, Principles of Sociology of Law, Cet., IX, PT RajaGrafindo Persada, Jakarta, 1999, p., 179-180.

[3] The life and patterns of relationships within the community will run in an orderly and regular, if supported by the existence of a legal order. Because of the order of life is to be orderly. Thus what is seen as an institution within the legal community, to create good relationships stay organized between the members of the community, which is seen as the order that governs the behavior of the community. The governing such behavior is the norm, whether religious norms, customs (adat), ethics and legal norms.

[4] Kuncoro nobles, Social Anthropology, Library Jaya, New York, 1980, p., 155.

[5] Serjono Soekanto, op.cit, p., 69.

[6] As for the type referred to by Nottingham are: 1). Backward peoples and sacred values. Mesayarakat this type of small, isolated and backward. 2). Preindustrial societies are berekambang. The state of society is not isolated, there is a higher technological developments daridapa the first type. See Dadang Kahmad, Sociology of Religion, PT. Rosdakaraya adolescents, New York, 2000.

[7] Dadang Kahmad, op.cit., P., 175-176.

[8] Samuel Koenig, Man and Society, the basic teaching of Sociology, Cet., II, Barners & Noble inc. New York, 1957, p., 302.

[9] Muhammad Sulthon, Design Science Dahwah; Study of Ontological, epistemological and axiological, Student Press, 2003, p., 105-106.



[10] When the symptoms of the life of the complex ingredients of differentiation in various areas of life, the desire to bring the teachings of Islam are more contributive and contextual becomes a necessity that can not be put off again (point of no return). Because as it is known, however par-exelence its teachings of a religion that terekan through the verses of the holy al-Qur `an and the Hadith, the teachings will not have any meaning (meanings), when not able at dawn break into operational guidelines -functional requirements that can be felt for mankind. For that set of knowledge required to lead and guide manysia, as caliph on earth. one of the science that is often involved in the response to an issue of human life is a science mission.

[11] In addition to the above opinion, Amrullah Ahmad, also provide penretian, that mission: "substantially in the actualization of pious Islamic (theological) which is manifested in a system kegaiatan believers in the areas of society which carried on a regular basis to influence the way of feeling, thinking , behave and act at the level of reality of individual human and socio-cultural in order to pursue the realization of the teachings of Islam in all aspects of life by using certain methods. understanding above all, the leaders or scientists give defenisianya appropriate in the eyes of each in providing a definition of propaganda.



[12] Talking about the problem method of propagation, so ert relation to the strategy of preaching itself. Among the factors to be considered in developing mission strategies are: a) Factors doctrine (law) of Islam; b) institutional capacity factors; c) the object of social factors propaganda; d) feelings and objective factors. Various factors mentioned above have the relationship between each other in the preparation of missionary strategy. For that the one factor with other factors to be really understood the intent and purpose.

[13] KI. Machfoeld MA, Philosophy Propagation: Propagation and Implementation Studies, Jakarta, Moon Star, 1975, p., 186.

[14] Asmuni Syukir, Fundamentals of Islamic Da'wah strategy, al-Ikhlas, Surat, 1983, p., 104-160.

[15] Muhammad Sulthon, op.cit., P., 16.

[16] Ministry of Religious Affairs. op. cit, p. 778.

[17] Ibid, p. 862.

[18] Ibid, p. 93.

[19] Ibid, p. 94.



[20] Ibid, p. 831

[21] Abū Mu ¥ ammad ibn Abdullah al-Yazid Qazwaini, Sunan Ibn M ± face, op. cit, chapters II, p. 1330. ¢ a ¥ i ¥ al-Bukh r ± ³, op. cit, chapter 28 book of science. Sunan an-Nas ± i, Volume 4 juz faith chapter 8, p. 111. ¢ a ¥ i ¥ Muslim faith chapter, p. 78, volume II juz rukya chapter VI.

[22] Al-Bukh r ± ³ al-Ju'fi, ¢ a ¥ i ¥ al-Bukh r ± ³, op. cit, shirkah chapter 6, chapters 3, p. 182 creed chapter 30, chapters 3, p. 237.

[23] Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Yazid al-Qazwaini, Sunan Ibn Majah, op. cit, chapter II al-Juz amru bi al-kindness, p. 1327

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