Aneka Ragam Makalah

Quran Translation


There is disagreement among Muslims about the Quran translation of law, whether he is the same as the Qur'an (Mushaf) or not. Differences of opinion about the status of the Qur'an translation is then extended to whether a person should do wudoo 'when going to touch the Quran translation or not, and so on. This paper will try to elaborate on the issue. In addition, by adding insight, we will outline the history of translation of the Koran from Arabic into foreign languages.

B. History of Quran Translations

In history, the translation of the Koran was first performed by the head of the church of Cluny, Peter the Great Peter the Venerable French in 1143 AD With the help of a British minister Robert Ketton and Herman Dalmash of Germany, in order to gain knowledge of the Koran, the Muslim book of his day into a rapidly growing religion in Andalusia, Spayol-translation of the Koran and then he did. Translation is about four centuries of being owned by a church only to be studied and not allowed to be printed outside the church on the grounds sepaya Christians do not have the opportunity to learn the translations of the Koran, until there will be no Christians who have apostatized from agamanya.Pertengahan Ages 16 years 1543, under the supervision of a Swiss named Teidoor, translation is then printed. In 1550 for the second time in three volumes printed. Although it contains a translation error and not a few mistakes, but the thirst for Europeans to study the holy book of Muslims in addition to the fears and concerns do the translation of their book when it subsequently spread among non-Muslim communities, the work of Peter is not only acceptable in the middle of the European , more than that, a translation of the Koran references to other Latin languages ​​such as Italian, German and Dutch. "

Quran Karim, is the only book of the heavens that does not change. For Muslims is the basis of law and values ​​as well as sources of knowledge in this religion. Al-Qur'an has laid the foundation stone of civilization building approximately four trillionth of a majority of the inhabitants of the earth in the east. To the west, of course, the entry point to understand the thinking of Muslims is Islam's holy book to know this. For this reason, the early west and then with firmness hard to do business through a wave of translation, known as Istisyraq (Westernization) from Arabic into Latin. Paper will try to review the business.

Mid-Century 16 in 1543, under the supervision of a Swiss named Teidoor, translation is then printed. In 1550 for the second time in three volumes printed. Although it contains translation errors and mistakes not a few [1] but the thirst of Europeans to study the holy book of Muslims in addition to the fears and concerns do the translation of their book when it subsequently spread among non-Muslim communities, the work of Peter is not only acceptable in the middle Europeans, more than that, a translation of the Koran references to other Latin languages ​​such as Italian, German and Dutch. [2]

Through the translation of Peter is later, to the west of transferring some of the Latin language, including:

A. Translation into Latin

Latin was the mother of European languages. Translation of the Koran for the first time into this carried out in the 12th century AD by the Church Kalony (Pitter Venerable) and printed in 1543. Another translation by Hankelmann in 1594, also by Marracci with direct printing. Translation of the Qur'an the most famous in Latin and the priest's Marracci Inveknitus XI to include the original Arabic, as well as writing a long review review the rejection of Islam in 1691, printed in 1697 in Europe.

2. Translation to English

From year 1649 until 1970, more than 295 perfect translation and translation 131 scattered or pimilihan-choice of the Qur'an done into English. Caused has several features, some of this translation reprinted several times and the peak is a translation of George Sale. As to Dr.. Ramyare, this translation was printed 35 times. While the World Inseklopedia translation of the Koran, George Sale's work has been reprinted many as 105 times. [3]

3. Translation to German

Church Noremberg (Salamon Schwigger) were the first to do the translation into German of Italian translation, with a cover that read "al-Coranus Mohomedus" (Qur'an Muhammad) and printed in 1616. Though often the publishers, or who intends to publish this translation of the whole experience of suffering before death, but in 1623, 1659 and in 1664 continued to be printed in a new face. In 1708 a new translation of the Koran made by Joeseph Hammer Won. Translation of the Koran is the best and most thorough in the German language is Fart and Rudy have been printed in the revised edition as much as 16 times. Until now has done as much as 43 translations into German.

4. French translation

Translation of the Koran into French was first performed by Andre Derwiah earlier in 1647 that a long stay in Istanbul and Egypt with a mastery of the Arabic language as well. Title translation given the name "Muhammad Qur'an" and printed in Paris. Until 1775 this translation was reprinted 20 times and has introduced, entitled Brief of School-School of the Nation Turkey. Included in the translation of the best records are the property of C. Savari, printed in Paris in 1750 and 1788 as many as 28 times. The latest is a translation made by one culture expert and professor of Arabic and French veteran university include a description and a review of his work, printed in 1990. [4]

SOME PEOPLE AND IMPORTANT WORKS

Preparation of a collection of the Qur'an western researchers that includes important figures Westerian also the non-Muslim south and their works, have been carried out diligently by Hauzah reseach centers and universities in the Islamic Republic of Iran, we put forward the following figures and their important work in accordance with the order of years.

a. Gustav Flugel (1802-1870)

German writer has about 20 works from the Islamic religion, literature and sciences of the Arabic language. The most famous is the augury Atraf fi al-Qur'an al-Qur'an, written in 1842 in the city Leibzigh. Scholars of al-Azhar university gave great attention to this work, they then appoint Muhammad Fuad Abdul Baqi for Flugel translated into Arabic, which later was named al-Mu `jam al-Mufahraz Fadz Li al-Qur'an .

Jules Labum can be categorized as a translation of the Qur'an and the researcher's contemporary importance and Edward Moonitea Flugel. Also with the proposal and sponsor the al-Azhar, his work was later translated into Arabic by Muhammad Fuad Abdul Baqi Tafsil entitled Verses of the Qur'an al-Karim. [5]

c. Theodor Noldeke (1836-1931)

Known as the father of western Islam Mustasyriqun and researcher, he also is the founder of science History of al-Qur'an in the Weasterian. Theodor at the age of 20 years in the early history of doctoral writing of the Koran and after 10 years, he continued to study more deeply on these writings. The most important work of Theodor that once a reference to researchers after the Geschicte des Qorans. Unfortunately, over the past 170 years to the present book has been translated into Arabic.

d. Ignaz Goldziher (1850-1921)

The methodology is the most important works of Tafsir al-Qur'an. because his book is also, among Westerian then menobatkannya as Pounding Father Methodology Tafsir al-Qur'an. The book is translated twice by Dr. Hasan Ali Abdul Kadir al-titled Mazahib fi Tafsir al-Islamiyah al-Qur'an and by Dr. Abdul Halim Bakhar entitled Mazahib at-Tafsir al-Islamy. [6]

c. Regis Blachere (1990-1973)

This Paris-born leader, with his father migrated to Algeria and Morocco who was in the French colonies, in both countries are also likely he studied Arabic and Islamic sciences. He has many works in Arabic literature and Islam, among the most important thing is;

A. Dar Astaneh Qur'an

Translated by Dr. Mahmud Ramyar. In this book, he criticizes matodologi interpretation of the Koran, Westerian weakness in understanding the Qur'an. In addition, order the book of the Koran in accordance with the arrangement of the decline, is an important work.

2. Dar-e bar Qur'an Amadiy

Translated by Dr. Asadullah Mubassyri. Consists in a brief discussion of the history of the Qur'an readings, living history Rasululla Makkah period, interpretation and mufassirun etc..

d. Artor Jeffri (Early 20th century)

A teacher at the American University of Beirut and Cairo universities. This figure also own a number of works on Islam and the Qur'an, the most important of them;

A. The Foreign Vocabulary of the Qur'an, printed in 1938, has been translated into Persian under the title Wachehay dakhily dar-e Quran by Dr. Faridun Badreh'ie. In this book, Jeffri says as many as 375 non-Arab terms contained in the Koran. so-still-Muhammad thought the difficulty in choosing the language so it must adopt a foreign language, and this has caused many difficulties companions.

2. Corrections to the book of al-Mashahib Sajistany work for the first time. This book became a handbook for students. [7]

e. Motogomery Watt (1909)

He received his doctoral degree in philosophy with a dissertation Jabr and endeavor in Islam. After that, he was then active in researching Islam and the Koran in cooperation with the British Protestant churches. 've Also become chairman of the reseach agency of the Koran at the university of London.

Among the important thing is writing Watt;

A. Introduction to Remembrance

Other than Westerian another, in this book, criticizing the prophet Muhammad Watt more scientific and away from the language of reproach pungent as was done in the group. His other works; Muhammad at Mecca period, the period of Muhammad in Medina, Muhammad, Prophet and Leader, Islamic Revelation in the Modern Era.

f. Toshihiko Izutshu (1914)

Tokyo Japan-born professor, having known the Arabic language, he then began to examine the books related to Islam, Mac Gill University and then called him to teach. Izutshu, in collaboration with Dr. Muhaqqiq Mahdi, the genealogy of knowledge about Iran he was searching. His works are most important;

A. Translating the Koran was first into Japanese
2. God and Man in the Koran, translated by Ahmad Aram
3. Morality in the Qur'an, translated by Faridun Badreh'ie [14]

g. Aro Rippin (1950)

One of the researchers of Islam and the Koran was born in London, he graduated from the faculty ad-Din Ma'arif University of Toronto, was his master's degree he achieved at Mac Gill University of Islamic Sciences. Exposure of his thesis in 1977 titled Istilahat Mutaradif wa al-fi al-Qur'an Ma'aniha expands praise as his doctoral dissertation in 1981 titled Mutun asbab Nuzul al-Qur'an. Rippin, became a member of the Academy of Religion in Canada and the United States, the Community-Timut research center in Britain and university teachers in Michigan, and Canada's Victoria University. He has written dozens of papers in the field of Qur'an, Encyclopedia of religion and the Bible as well as dozens of others about Islam.

B. Touching the Qur'an Translations

The scholars were divided on the issue must wudoo 'to touch the Mushaf. Some scholars are not required but others require it.

A. That required

Among the scholars who require wudoo 'before touching the Mushaf al-Imam Abu Hanifa, Al-Imam Malik and Al-Imam ash-Shafi'i rahimahumullah.

2. Which does not require

While the scholars of the school of Zhahiri not require wudoo 'to touch the Mushaf.

Causes of Differences

Actually two different groups of this opinion use the same arguments that one Koran verses as well, namely:
لا يمسه إلا المطهرون

Not touch it unless they are purified (Surat Al-Waqiah: 79)

But the method of approach to each is different. Groups that require wudu 'interpretation of the word al-muthahharun (those who are sanctified) in the paragraph above as a human being. And lafadz laa yamassuhu worth a ban is not just the news or notifications alone. [8] Thus according to the legal conclusions of this group is the man should not touch the Mushaf Al-Quran unless they have been purified. And consecrated meaning is that the person had ablution.

Groups that do not require wudu 'interpretation of the word al-muthahharun in the paragraph above as an angel. So there is no obligation for man to do wudoo 'when it hits the Mushaf Al-Quran. In addition lafadz yammassuhu laa (do not touch the Quran) by the ban but they are not worth the value khabar (notice) that there is nothing to touch the Quran except the angels. Then there is no any restrictions for a person to touch the Mushaf but not in a state of purity.

But the source of the difference between them is not simply a difference in the paragraph above, but there are other arguments that are used to strengthen arguments respectively. For example, those who require proof ablution add them to the following hadith:
لا يمس القرآن إلا طاهر

Of Amr bin Hazm that the Prophet wrote: It is not a person to touch the Qur'an except in a state of purity. (Reported by Malik 1/199, Abdurrazzaq 1/341, Al-Bayhaqi 1/87 and Ad-Daruquthuni 1/121) This hadith hadith hasan li assessed as ghairihi by the scholars. But some people do not accept it because of the hadeeth narrated by writing (mushahhafah).

C. Ijtihad About Quran Translations

Then the next question is whether the existing Manuscripts translation was regarded as the Mushaf also or not? Some of the scholars who view that as a Manuscripts lafadz not consist only of the Qur'an, but also comes with a translation or other explanations, it is considered not including legal Manuscripts. But most scholars still do not distinguish between the two, despite having completed the translation, there is still a lafadz Arabic. So that the identity of his stay glued mushafan can not be separated.

E. Cover.

Translation of the Koran was first performed by the head of the church of Cluny, Peter the Great Peter the Venerable French in 1143 AD after this period, the Qur'an continues to receive attention from the non-native Arabic until now. There are two different groups of opinion about the law touching the Qur'an translations. Actually two different groups of this opinion use the same arguments that one Koran verses as well, namely:
لا يمسه إلا المطهرون
Not touch it unless they are purified (Surat Al-Waqiah: 79)

But the method of approach to each is different. Groups that require wudu 'interpretation of the word al-muthahharun (those who are sanctified) in the paragraph above as a human being. And lafadz laa yamassuhu worth a ban is not just a mere news or notifications. While that does not require others to interpret.

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References and Footnote


Daftar Pustaka







Baqi , Muhammad Fuad Abdul, Tafsil Ayat al-Qur’an al-Karim. Kairo: Dar al-Masyriq, tth.

Poin, Riwayat hidup Goldziher. Jakarta: Citra Pustaka, 1996.

www.cyberMQ.com didownload pada 2 januari 2008.

Zamani, Hasan, Tarikh Harakat al-Istisyraq. Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-Ilmiyyah, tth.

_____________, Naqd-e Barrasi Ara-e Mustasyriqan Dar Baray-e Qur’an. Lebanon, t.p., tth.





Footnote



[1] Misalnya, dalam menerjemahkan ayat 3 Surah Humamazah Yahsabu Anna Malahu Akhladahu diterjemahkan dengan Harta mereka akan mengekalkan mereka. Dengan kesalahan terjemahan kata Yahsabu.

[2] Hasan Zamani,Tarikh Harakat al-Istisyraq (Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-Ilmiyyah, tth.) Hal. 13-17

[3] Hasan Zamani, Naqd-e Barrasi Ara-e Mustasyriqan Dar Baray-e Qur’an (Lebanon, t.p., tth.), Hal. 9

[4] Hasan Zamani,Tarikh Harakat al-Istisyraq

[5] Muhammad Fuad Abdul Baqi , Tafsil Ayat al-Qur’an al-Karim (Kairo: Dar al-Masyriq, tth.)

[6] Poin, Riwayat hidup Goldziher (Jakarta: Citra Pustaka, 1996), h. 34.

[7] Ibid.

[8] diambil dari artikel internet “tentang Alquran terjemahan” dalam www.cyberMQ.com didownload pada 2 januari 2008.

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