Aneka Ragam Makalah

REVITALIZATION OF RELIGION

Humans as social beings with ever-changing one character or experience a change in culture. behavioral patterns that exist in a culture that tends to constantly change. [1] The change from a variety of patterns of human behavior that occurs because they desire to meet the needs of human life and its continuance. Where the requirement that covers both aspects of the spiritual and material aspects are constantly evolving. The occurrence of such a thing as a human necessity to adapt to the challenges that face it both from the social environment and the challenges of nature. [2] 

Among the factors that drive and affect social change, both to meet the spiritual aspect or aspects of the material because of dissatisfaction with the areas of life tertentuyang felt very fundamental. [3] In the religious life that occurred in human history, both social change, which often lead to social conflicts arising from the dissatisfaction, the terminology is called a revitalization as evidenced by the religious movements that both movements are positive or negative. The paper reviews some aspects of the movement that occurs revitalisai against religion. 

B. Understanding Revitalization

In a large Indonesian dictionary called that Renitalisasi is a process, manner, or act of re-animate and invigorate. For example, the revitalization of science or Rennaisance, or Renitalisasi religion means to revive the religion, either because there are those who act as a generator, as well as human beings back to the religion of his own choosing, so the rise of religious passion kembali.4

Revitalization efforts can be interpreted to create a new existence and well-liked by the circumstances that exist now or in accordance with state sekarang5 times. This could also be said with an effort that is deliberate, organized and realized by the members mesyarakat to form a more memuaskan6 culture. Thus, it can be concluded as a revitalization of the broader community effort to make a change in the order of a society that takes place, either by turning on a guided community that is almost extinct and that led to the creation of new culture that is considered to give a better atmosphere.

Term and the term in rather similar to the revitalization of a process that evolved into an understanding of the church, which means rebuilding a new spirit of the believers who did not run his faith, stirs their hearts with a sermon-preaching and spontaneous prayer, so the rise of religious zeal they are massal.7

Revitalization is characterized by the presence of religious movements that many bernunculan in the United States in the 18th century and continued into other areas. The many forms, be it positive or negative form and misleading.

C. Causes Birth of Religious Revitalization

Humans lived his life burdened by the need for the various needs of food, clothing, and shelter. On the basis of the man both individually and collectively, the nature, character, and habits have a variety of plans which led to a sense of optimism about the success and achievement of the plan. If the plan and its success, the goal is reached, he will feel relieved, excited and eager to melakuakan planning, work and keep working. But if the plans fail, he will feel disappointed and often end up with a state prustasi although not a few who also have a plan but did not materialize does not cause him to despair, but try again while evaluating the causes of failure and to reform again. Such illustrations of characters who tend to forget yourself when managed with the purpose and if the situation yantg otherwise would beg and hope to the menciptakannya.8

The man plans to run even a little or a lot of success and achieved, not necessarily entirely true. This is caused limited time, the tools available to communities that do not allow them to realize the success of the plan and the goals they deserved it. It is a basic human character that're always alone there are many obstacles and limitations in realizing the hopes and ideals.

At certain times of pre-existing facilities and inadequate facilities that do not achieve the success of the plan also allows every human being something to be desired. This is because there are at least two factors: first, factors interent society itself, and second, the external factors. the internal factors that arise due to an understanding of religious doctrine that has been entrenched, so turn off their creativity develops, for example, the emergence of the reform ideas that Luther objected to the Catholic doctrine of salvation through the forgiveness of sins by a priest who later contributed to the proliferation of acts of corruption in Church. This gave rise to ideas and teachings of Protestantism known as prediket Lutheranisme.9

As for external factors, outside the presence of a force of a society that is intervened fikir pattern yant society is stagnant for the life of a community group. With that intervention, the community groups with an initial order of a quiet life turned into a chaotic mess that led them to the situation of poverty, misery, humiliation, a lower class in their own country. This situation in turn gives a sense of dissatisfaction and then want to move to make changes. An example is the people liberation of Indonesia from Dutch rule. This is a liberation from the colonial grip. 10

From the above description can also be explained there are some indications that the birth of religious revitalization. In the last decade, often heard the expressions of religious revival. Echoes of the rise of religions is echoed everywhere, also in this country. This expression is not just a hope, but also the phenomenon. Various indications can be seen to demonstrate this phenomenon among which are:

A. Development of a more intense religious literature, so the more outstanding books by various religious understanding of the different-sometimes cause confusion in confusion for the lay reader nemahami religion.

2. Postmodernism and the Revival Movement prestige of Religion, the point of tangency between these two communities is the tendency of postmodernism to go back to the essence of religious teachings.

3. Environmental Crisis, Spiritual Crisis, the recent phenomenon of widespread circulation of news and environmental destruction will be undertaken by a group of people / communities that the root cause is the emptiness of their religion to spirituality within them.

4. Turmoil Modern Society, modern society keberhasialn aggressive form of human progress and the progress perporos to rationality, which makes people feel confident to leave the Lord, and consider religion amerupakan relics and remnants of Primitive Culture. But this really brings to the happiness of the human soul? 11

Of some of the above it is clear that the revitalization of religion caused by a sense of dissatisfaction, which is then expected and longed for the occurrence of any significant change in the direction of peace, kebaikann, and prosperity in life.

D. REVITALIZATION OF THE FORM OF RELIGION

In the previous explanation that the revitalization of this religion, bewujud in a religious movement be it positive or negative. In sociological terms this is called the Socio Relegius movement. In the focus merupah a custom order is in the form and content. By michael fennel this movement is different. Among the uses violence and resistance neat and organized, and some are using peaceful means and with emphasis on evolutionary and updates Modernitas.12

One motion in the form of peaceful and positive is a movement that can change gradually towards the good and the rise of the Muhammadiyah movement in Islam in Indonesia. In the majority of Islamic scholars developed an understanding that if the Muhammadiyah still maintaining the textual method in understanding Islam, which means that more purifikatif tendency to be exclusive, it is feared Muhammadiyah no longer able to experience the times, it can be left behind and abandoned civilization. With this condition the next according to experts is expected to be able to Muhammadiyah Islamic movement that can make a positive contribution to the development of Islam selanjutnya.13

Sometimes the members of the movement's struggle to revive their traditional customs and rid it of foreign elements or vice versa. Desire and a strong tendency to change their traditional customs and replace it with a search for forms of tradition, culture, organizations and foreign behavior, such as the movement of cargo in Melanesia.14

The form of movement that makes changes to the treatment of revolutionary violence per se occurs in people who live in the community order terintervensi by foreign powers. So by kerenanya them into groups that persecuted, oppressed, so that peace can no longer maintain. They will move and will create resistance when faced with the extinction of cultural issues in the near future because of the arrival of another group in power.

Some examples could be argued that when the Jewish religious center in Jerusalem will be destroyed by the Roman empire and when they experienced the expulsion of the Christians, such as the Jews fought and what was once terhdap changes in intervention by another group of religious and the system they have. In the end the Jews could fight and defeat their enemies and move forward to establish a negara.15

A movement which is another form of extreme religious revitalization is an event that occurred in Japan, Kamakura period who believes that the world is a hell and heaven only to the death. This is what caused the suicide of religious parties that aim to get heaven Amida.16

In Islam, called by Marcel A. Boisard in his book "Islamic humanism" of Western colonialism in the Islamic world, will lead to self-esteem in the underestimate. In this case transformed into a business for religious revival. Culture and politics, an effort for which he was encouraged by keyakianan interests facing the clash and the European colonizers. So by doing anti colonial efforts, the Muslim world in general and Arabs in particular shows up again in the history of Islam.17

In Indonesia the form of movement of people in their efforts to revitalize the religion varies from age to age and continues to grow and expand, though not deny also that this movement brought a lot of people towards religious understanding ambiguous. As an example can be explained that the Muhammadiyah movement on top of being one of the purification movement in Islam, there is another more rigorous purification movement of Islamic Unity. In this context we need to call this group commonly known as Inkarus Sunnah, as they claimed only to maintain the most authentic Islamic sources only. Namely the Quran and Hadith in the know are less convinced. In this context of religious revitalization movement continues to grow lost berlasung broken switch, continues to expand throughout the dunia.18 

E. THE RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT revitalize

Muhammad Abdul Mun'im Khallaf in his religion in the national perspective states that among the major problems of human life is a problem related to religion. Thus, the themes related to religion is very important and need to raise serious concern because of religious issues will affect the development of human life, especially in matters of humanistic, moral, ethical, and aesthetic. In addition it supports the opinion that the above is the recognition that states that religion is the most fundamental and basic needs for life manusia.19

In the study of sociology of religion, religion in view of the multi-functional roles. Elizabeth K. Notingham in introductory sociology of religion Religion and Society says there are at least three functions, namely the maintenance of public order, religion, integrative function, and the affirmation of religious values. In addition is seen as a social phenomenon that grow along with the growth of life in society.

Modernism in the field of science and technology achievement necessitates to be the sole reference and size so that the function of religion keberhasialn forgotten. On the other hand there is regret this, loss of function and role of religion that should guide humans to understand and appreciate the values ​​of transcendental role in fostering noble values ​​in kehudupan individually and socially, so that people are not caught up in the pride of the material belaka.20

This is what led to invent an indication of the community to revitalize religion embodied in the form of religious movements that serve to maintain the function of religion to society.

View the status of religion in this way, it is natural that religion has always been a discourse sepanjamg history. In the last decade, talk of religion re-emerged to the surface, especially after John Naisbitt and Patricia Aburdene megatrend in his 2000 Ten New Direction For The 1990 'Applying for a view of the revival of religion. Increasingly attractive because of religious conversation with the hope, the expectation that want religion as an alternative paradigm in framing the history of human civilization in the future.

In line with the above, the reflection of thought emerged as a fundamental achievement of the expectations of religion as an alternative paradigm of the future, which is about the synergy of efforts to eliminate the interest of religion as the cause of religion as a disintegrative factor or conflict. It is in the underlying to the view that all religions have common ground on shared universal values ​​of humanity in every religion.

Perhaps discourse mentioned above is the most important to know that the current revitalization of religion is needed and the manifestation of it all must be a positive movement that led to the resurgence of religion as a natural and positive. Not the mark with the wrong move and able to menyasatkan life. Not things like that which is expected by the religion.
Current trend is probably one of the movements we have mentioned are the millenarian movements in religion. Many positive trends in this movement but can not in anyway deny this motion-gerkan those that are wrong.


REFERENCES
  • Department Education. Large dictionary of Indonesian, Jakarta Central Library. 2003
  • Elizabeth K.Nothingham, Religion and Society. An Introduction to the Sociology of Religion. King Grafindo Persada, Jakarta, 1987
  • Marcel a. Botsard, Humanism In Islam, the Crescent Star, Jakarta, 1980
  • Mochtar Effendy, Encyclopedia of Religion and Philosophy. Palembang: Univ. Srivijaya. 2001
  • Robert A. Nisbet, The Social Bond An Introduction to the study of society, Alfred A Knopt. New York, 1970
  • Soerjono Soekarno, Function of Law and Social Change, Alumni, London, 1981
  • Steven K Saudarson, Macro Sociology, An approach socially terhadapRelitas, Introduction to the Issue Indonesia Hotman M. Siahaan, Issue II, Eagle Press, London
  • Shabran. Revitalization of Islamic Thought Muhammadiyah. Journal of Islamic Studies and Propagation, Issue 2 Vol.XIX 2000
  • BlogThis Tobroni and Islam Cultural and Political Pluralism: Theological Reflection for Action in Religious and Education New York: cypresses, 1994
  • Ferkiss Victor, The future of technological Civillization, Gerge Brazillex, New York, 1974
  • www. Wikipedi a.com
  • [1] Robert A. Nisbet, The Social Bond An Introduction to the study of society, Alfred A Knopt. (New York, 1970), h.333.
  • [2] Ferkiss Victor, The future of technological Civillization, (New York: Gerge Brazillex, 1974: h.165.
  • [3] Soerjono Soekarno, Function of Law and Social Change, (New York: Alumni 1981). H.22.
  • 4 Ministry of Education. Large dictionary Indonesian (Jakarta: Central Library. 2003)
  • 5 Steven K Saudarson, Macro Sociology, An approach socially terhadapRelitas, Introduction to the Issue Indonesia Hotman M. Siahaan, Edition II, (New York: Eagle Press, nd), p. 53.
  • 6 Marcel a. Botsard, Humanism In Islam, (New York: Crescent Star, 1980, h.xii.
  • 7 Mochtar Effendy, Encyclopedia of Religion and Philosophy. (Palembang: Univ. Sriwijaya. 2001). H. 133.
  • 8 See al-Qur'an al-Karim al-Sunnah Ma'arij verses 19-21.
  • 9 Steven K Saudarson.Op.Cit. h. 211.
  • 10 Marchel A. Boisar, op.cit., P. Xiii.
  • 11 Revitalization and millenarian movements in Religion, Religion and Social Sciences Lecture, (London: Postgraduate IAIN)
  • 12 Elizabeth K.Nothingham, Religion and Society. An Introduction to the Sociology of Religion. (New York:
  • King Grafindo Persada, 1987), p. 136.
  • 13 Shabran. Revitalization of the Muhammadiyah Islamic thought. Journal of Islamic Studies and Propagation, Issue 2 Vol.XIX 2000. h. 3.
  • 14 Michael Adas, Op. Cit.
  • 15 Elizabeth. Op. Cit., P. 119.
  • 16 Ibid., P. 117-119
  • 17 Ibid., P. 133-134.
  • 18 www.Wikipedia.com
  • 19 Tobroni and Syamsul Arifin, Cultural Pluralism and Political Islam: Reflection for Action in Religious Theology and Education (New York: cypresses, 1994), p. 5.
  • 20 Ibid. h. 98
Mau Makalah Gratis! Silahkan Tulis Email Anda.
Print PDF
Next
« Prev Post
Previous
Next Post »
Copyright © 2012. Aneka Ragam Makalah - All Rights Reserved | Template Created by Kompi Ajaib | Modified by Ibrahim Lubis