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Search Hadith maudhu

Maudhu 'means the form of ism maf'ul wadha'a verb that means making it up or make-up. When associated with the Hadith then means forge or fabricate Hadith Hadith. According to the science of hadith, Hadith maudhu 'means leaning to the Hadith that the Messenger of Allah. the Messenger of Allah. himself never did, do and decide. In another source said that the Hadith maudhu means a lie that was made ​​and created and propped up against the Messenger of Allah. 

A. Preliminary
Even so the amount of function and position of Hadith as a source of Islam after the Qur'an al-Karim, but as noted in history, writing and codifying the Hadith was officially started at the time of Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz. Once the length of span between the time since the death of the Prophet. until the codified Hadith. In the history of Hadith, many emerging-Hadith Hadith false published by several groups for a specific purpose in politics as practiced by the Shiites, or the economy such as forgery of hadith which states that the pigeons to race is what one thing that was told to the apostle, bigotry against a groups such as teaching or tradition which says that the Apostle has given leadership to Ali. This paper will elaborate on false hadith and several studies related to 

B. Understanding.
In terms of language, maudhu 'means the form of the verb maf'ul ism wadha'a which means making it up or make-up. [1] When associated with the Hadith means forge or fabricate Hadith Hadith. According to the science of hadith, Hadith maudhu 'means leaning to the Hadith that the Messenger of Allah. the Messenger of Allah. himself never did, do and decide. [2]

In another source said that the Hadith maudhu 'means were fabricated and created and propped up against the Messenger of Allah. [3]
Of some of the definitions above can be seen a few common elements of the sign of a forgery of hadith, namely:

A. the element of intent.
2. no element of deception or inconsistency with the facts.
3. There penisbahan the Messenger of Allah. a greeting action or acknowledgment.

C. History and Development maudhu Hadith ' 

There are differing opinions about when the appearance of Hadith forgeries. Among the differences that some have argued that at the time of the Prophet. pemalusan Hadith has not happened. This opinion was expressed by Abdul Wahhab, but even then, he did not reject the possibility of elements of fraud against the Prophet. and the teachings of Islam against the backdrop of various factors. [4]

Several factors underlie this helped, according to Abdul Wahhab, is the notion that the Messenger of Allah. not prohibit even give a chance if it is deemed to provide a positive benefit to the advancement of Muslims. It could be a forgery religious advice. Another factor is the presence of carelessness in the Hadith narrated by narrators-narrators are weak so that the resulting errors in various forms. As the real history not from the Prophet., But due to oversight, the history of leaning to the Prophet.  Another opinion says that the fraud had occurred at the time of the Prophet. This opinion as presented by al-Amin and Ahmad Adabi. 

Salahuddin al-adabi argued that forgery of hadith that are to lie against the Prophet. and dealing with mundane problems have occurred during the Prophet. performed by people hypocrites. As for the Hadith forgery with respect to the issue of religion has ever happened to the Prophet. The reason given by al-Adabi is the hadith narrated by at-Thahawi (d. 321 H) and at-Tabrani (d. 360 H). History states that at the time of the Prophet., Is someone who has made ​​a hoax in the name of the Prophet. the person claimed to have been authorized by the Prophet. to solve a problem in certain communities around the Medina. Another opinion expressed by Ahmad Amin, he reasoned with the Hadith the Prophet. which can be interpreted as the likelihood of victimization at the time of the Prophet. Hadith in question are: 

و من كذب على متعمدا فليتبوأ مقعده من النار
Whoever lies upon me intentionally then let him prepare his seat from hell.

Although this hadith can be interpreted as a warning to avoid any form of victimization on the prophets, but by Ahmad Amin, this Hadith has been interpreted as lying at that time. [5]

Both of the above opinion, is likely to require testing, especially in terms of historical that could support that also can find out who is lying and when they occurred. aside from that, in terms of honor history propounded by al-Adabi who said that the Messenger of Allah. ordered his companions to kill people who have lied, and if that was in question has died, the Messenger of Allah. ordered the person's body is burned. Is not this something that is useless and contrary to Islamic teaching.

In terms of the sanad of hadith used by al-Adabi has received assessments from the Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani who has said that there is a name of a friend who judged invalid. Apart from that, history is a history of Hadith additional mutawatir used as an excuse by Ahmad Amin. [6] The third opinion is a fraud according to most scholars. Ajjaj al-Khatib stressed that the falsification does not occur from friends and from the tabi'in great, and if there was just emerging from the most ignorant among the Successors. [7] 

Muhammad ibn al-Kinani Iraq [8] says that during the early mid-11th century tabi'in H, there is a weak group and many have a mauquf memarfu'kan and narrated the mursal. At the small tabi'in (150 H), emerged the political groups, the elements of philosophy, religious beliefs, fanaticism, falsehood and error. [9] 

Most scholars argue that the forgery of hadith Hadith had happened the first time after the year 40 AH, during the caliphate of Ali ibn Abi Talib was the counter with Mu'awiya bin Abi Sufyan, which causes fragmentation of the Islamic Ummah and the emerging factions and political groups of different religions. Between groups are mutually reinforcing group with al-Karim Quran and Sunnah. Of course not every group to strengthen the group by using the Qur'an and Sunnah al-Karim, the most trying mentakwilkan Qur'an al-Karim and interpret the hadith in a way that is not true. When a verse or hadith can not be used as a tool for achieving the goal (because of the many people who memorize the Qur'an al-Karim and Sunnah) then they try to make up excuses and lies above Hadith the Prophet. Then came the Hadith-Hadith concerning the four caliphs and leaders of each group. Similarly, the currents of politics, religion and others. [10]

From the above description can be put forward some important notes about the development of Hadith forgeries:
A. considered fraud occurred during the Prophet. as claimed by al-Amin Adabi and Ahmad, not supported by the fact that strong.
2. at the time of the Prophet. transmission and there is also a friend of the religious teachings of Islam as advice to be done carefully to be understood not as a forgery.
3. counterfeiting appears originated from the carelessness of the narrators, weak narrators by:
a. Hadith memarfu'kan mauquf
b. mursal connect Hadith.
This occurred in the mid-term tabi'in continued to lie in mentakwilkan verses and Hadith to lead to the fabrication of Hadith.
4. most scholars indicate the occurrence of forgery after year 40 H, triggered by political issues, philosophical and religious ideology.

D. Factors underlying maudhu Hadith '.
Some of the factors mentioned by the experts that underlie the emergence of Hadith maudhu ', among which are:

A. politics.

After Uthman bin Affan died, there discord among Muslims by birth support each warring groups, such as support groups Ali, Mu'awiyah and the third group of supporters of the Kharijites that emerged following the Siffin war. [11] Of the three groups , the first Syi'ahlah forgery. Hadith made ​​by Shiite groups are:
على خير البشر من شك فيه كفر
ali is the best man, he who doubts is a kaafir.

While the Hadith Mu'awiyah made ​​by the group are:
ألا صفاء عند الله ثلاثة أنا و جبريل و معاوية
Remember! Sacred by Allah SWT. only three, I, Gabriel and Mu'awiyah.

While the group did not make the Hadith Khawarij in accordance with their belief that lying is a great sin, and commit major sins are infidels. [12]

2. Enemies of Islam (zindiq).
Among the names of those who forge Hadith zindiq is Muhammad ibn Said al-Samiy. He Tradition relates that the recognition comes from Humaid from Anas from the Prophet. reads:
أنا خاتم النبيين لا نبي بعدى إلا أن يشاء الله
I am the Seal of the prophets, there is no prophet after me except Allah. wills.
Other figures are Abdul Karim ibn al-Auza 'which has been falsified as many as 4000 penghalalan Hadith relating to the unlawful and lawful prohibition. They falsified the Hadith for the purpose of eliminating mengkaburkan and religious purity in fikir expert views and knowledge.

3. Fanaticism.
The supporters of the Persian language create the glory of Hadith which states that language, such as:
إن كلام الذى حول العرش فارسى
real permbicaraan around the Throne is the Persian language.
While the group is challenged to other hadith such as:
أبغض كلام عند الله فارسى
Discussion of the most hated by Allah swt. were Persian.

4. Create a story.
One goal is to communicate something through stories how to attract attention or to embellish things beautiful that the listener should not feel interested. Fraud with respect to them is:
من قال لا إله إلا الله خلق الله من كل كلمة طير أنقاره من ذهب و ريشه من مرجان
Whoever said "there is no god but Allah, Allah will create from each of those words that the beak of a bird made ​​of gold and feathers from Marjan.

5. Differences of opinion.
Such as:
كل من فى السماوات و الأرض و ما بينهما مخلوق غير القرأن
Every thing that is in heaven and earth, and which is located between the two is a creature except the Koran

6. excessive zeal for doing good is not based on religious issues.
There is an assumption among some people and the pious ascetic that for the purpose targhib and Tarheeb the forgery with the purpose, are not included in the category of people who cursed the Prophet in the hadith "Whoever lies upon me intentionally ......"

7. to get closer to the ruler.
Ghayyas bin Ibrahim has made ​​a lie through the Hadith when he entered the palace of al-Mahdi. At that time he saw al-Mahdi was pitted pigeons, then he uttered a forged hadith by adding matannya.
Apart from the things mentioned above, there are several other reasons that encourage the emergence of fraud, such as praise for a business or a particular job.

E. Characteristics maudhu Tradition '

a. Characteristics of the Sanad.
A. based on the recognition of those who forged hadith.
There are some names confessed forger of hadith, among them the Abu Isma Nuh ibn Abi Maryam's letters about the virtues of the Qur'an al-Karim. Abu Karim al-Auza 'who forged Hadith halal-haram. [13] So also with Abu Yazis who claimed to have been forged hadith and said repent and ask for forgiveness. [14]
2. significant signs of recognition.

For example, a narrator who claimed to receive from a teacher of Hadith and he had never met with the teacher, or the hadith he said that he received from a teacher, but teachers have passed away before he was born, such as Ibn Ahmad al-Ma'mun Saramiy who told Ibn Hibban that he had heard the hadith of Hisham and Hammar, Ibn Hibbanpun asked when he went to Sham, who answered by Ma'mun Ibn Ahmad al-Sarami that he had to Sham in the year 250 H. , Whereas Hisham died in 254 H.

3. seem far-fetched based on what happened.
b. Characteristics of the Matan.
Hadith forgeries traced accurately through matannya can be done by analyzing the honor. The elements are often found in the Hadith maudhu honor 'is:
A. weakness or confusion Hadith pronunciation and meaning.
2. damage to the meaning can not be accepted by the senses.
3. tolerate acts and encouragement lust.
4. the fact that contrary to the contents of the Hadith.
5. or news things that make no sense.
6. contrary to the Qur'an al-Karim nash.
7. contrary to the Hadith mutawatir.

E. Cover.

Maudhu Hadith 'is a made-up hadith and leaning to the Prophet. There are several factors, cause and purpose that drives someone forged Hadith, such as:
A. for political purposes.
2. fanaticism.
3. economy.
4. and so on.
There are several ways to find out whether or not a false hadith, either by looking at the characteristics of the sanad or honor. The characteristics of the sanad is:
A. the recognition of a narrator that he falsified Hadith.
2. there are things that menjukkan that a falsified Hadith narrator.
3. seem far-fetched.
While the characteristics of the honor are:
A. weakness or confusion Hadith pronunciation and meaning.
2. damage to the meaning can not be accepted by the senses.
3. tolerate acts and encouragement lust.
4. the fact that contrary to the contents of the Hadith.
5. or news things that make no sense.
6. contrary to the Qur'an al-Karim nash or Hadith mutawatir.

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Bibliography

Fathurrahman, Overview Mushtalah Hadith. London: al-Ma'arif, 1970.

Khatib, Ajjaj, Usul al-Hadith wa Ulumuh Musthalahuh. Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 1966.

___________, As-Sunnah Qabla at-Tadwin. Damasqus: Dar al-Fikr, 1981.

Kinani, Tanzih ash-Shari'ah al-Marfu'at, Vol. I. Beirut: Dar al-Ilmiyyah Pole, 1981.

Ma'luf, Louis, al-fil Munjid lughah wa al-knows best. Beirut: Dar Masyriq, 1986.

Shidqie, Hasbi, History and Introduction to the Science of Hadith. New York: Crescent Star, 1974.

Thahhan, Mahmud al-Hadith Mushtalah Taisir. Beirut: Dar al-Qur'an al-Karim, 1979.

Yuslem, Nawir, Ulumul Hadith. Jakarta: Mutia Widya Resources, 2001.



Footnote



[1] Louis Ma'luf, al-fil Munjid lughah wa al-knows best (Beirut: Dar Masyriq, 1986), p. 1004.

[2] Ajjaj al-Khatib, Usul al-Hadith wa Ulumuh Musthalahuh (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 1966), p 415.

[3] Mahmud at-Thahhan, Taisir Mushtalah al-Hadith (Beirut: Dar al-Qur'an al-Karim, 1979), p. 88.

[4] Al-Kinani, Tanzih ash-Shari'ah al-Marfu'at, (Beirut: Dar al-Ilmiyyah Pole, 1981), Vol. I hi

[5] Nawir Yuslem, Ulumul Tradition (New York: Mutia Widya Resources, 2001), p. 302.

[6] Ibid. h. 303.

[7] Ajjaj al-Khatib, Usul, p. 417.

[8] Al-Kinani, Tanzih.

[9] Nawir Yuslem, Ulumul Hadith, p. 33.

[10] Ajjaj al-Khatib, Usul, p. 416.

[11] Ajjaj al-Khatib, as-Sunnah Qabla at-Tadwin (Damasqus: Dar al-Fikr, 1981), p. 193.

[12] Ajjaj al-Khatib, Usul, p. 421.

[13] Nawir Yuslem, Ulumul, p. 316. see also Hasbi as-Shidqie, History and Introduction to the Science of Hadith (New York: Crescent Star, 1974) and Fathurrahman, Overview Mushtalah Hadith (London: al-Ma'arif, 1970), p. 143.

[14] Ajjaj, as-Sunnah, p. 293.
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