Gaius Octavius (63 BC-14M) (which is more famous with the nickname of Octavian, not willing to accept the title of August until the age of thirty-five years), born in 63 BC. He was grandson of Julius Caesar kemanakan which is the Roman political figure in the young Octavian. Because Julius Caesar himself did not have children, very unfortunately he told Octavian and educated to become a politician. However, when Caesar was killed in 44 BC, Octavian a new eighteen-year-old student.
Caesar's death caused a fierce and long struggle between the political and military leaders to occupy the seat of power. Octavian engaged in this struggle. At first, his opponents have experience and older age, think little of Octavian, he considered nothing more than to child, not a competitor that needs to be taken into account. While Octavian Caesar because they feel as though kids, want to take advantage of this situation. With the precision available to him he tried to snatch political victory by seeking support of the troops appointed Caesar and Mark Anthony as main support for Mark Anthony is the closest friend of Caesar. A series of battles in the years subsequent to eliminate political opponents in order to seize power levels. In the year 36 BC Rome and many other areas that have been conquered were divided in two by Mark Anthony and Octavian. Mark Anthony controlled the eastern part of the country and Octavian the west.
There are a couple of years the relationship between them is less familiar as a matter of women. Mark Anthony lazily into the office because he was intoxicated with Cleopatra. Conversely, Octavian with diligent care of the government and strengthen its position. Longer than people who love unconventional, with a free itself from the so-nookie can make different kinds of achievement. The mind is more centralized, not chaotic like tangled yarn. Because they are both different conditions too prolonged, could not ultimately come to talk guns. The war broke out between Mark Anthony and Octavian in 32 BC. Crisis ultimately resolved by a decisive sea battle at Actium in 31 BC which was won by Octavian, of course, absolutely. Worried, disappointed, frustrated, lost my mind, love is blind and insane drive Cleopotra decided Mark Anthony committed suicide together. A pair of pigeons which are equally nervous so earthworms.
Octavian now holding power equivalent to what Julius Caesar had experienced fifteen years previous. Caesar was assassinated because it would remove the government out of the Roman Republic and replace it with the imperial system. However, in the year 30 BC, after years of civil war and the government wallowing in the republican system obviously does not bring profit, the Romans generally did not mind receiving a wise system of despotic government, and not too loud and the origin of the formality of the republican system is still running.
Octavian, despite the hostile attitude in the stage of struggle to the top, strangely soft and appeared to be so paternalistic style was on the throne of power. In the year 27 BC, to attract the attention of the senate, he made the announcement to rebuild the republican system and expressed willingness to withdraw from all positions he held. But in fact he remained in his position as ruler of the Spanish provinces, Gaul, Syria. Since the majority of armed forces in all three provinces, the power and real power remained in his hands. Senate in a vote set the title Augustus, but he never considered himself a king. Theoretically, the Roman Augustus remained a republic and no more than a princeps (main resident). The real reality show, the senate is benign and generous ready to present any of the selected title Augustus and the rest of his life he was a dictator effective in the sense that the true meaning. When he died in the year 14 BC, Rome was entirely beyond the transition from a republic to form the kingdom and the adoptee Augustus replaced without difficulty at all.
Augustus arguably an example of a despot is capable and generous in history. He really was a statesman, a wise approach to successfully close the gaps caused by the disintegration of civil war. Augustus ruled Rome for 40 years and mannerisms as well as political lines so fad empire in the days after he was gone. Under Augustus the Romans did the absolute conquest of Spain, Switzerland, Galatia in Asia Minor and in most of the Balkan region. At the end of his reign, the northern border territory is not much different from the line of the Rhine river Danube the northern boundary at later ages.
Augustus truly an outstanding and capable administrator incomparable in terms of set of civil affairs and public service. He overhauling the tax system and financial system of the Roman state, reorganize the armed forces and build a permanent navy. He also built a private guard, laying the foundations of the imperial guard commander for centuries to come play an important role in selecting and dismiss the emperors.
Under pemeeintahan Augustus, built an extensive road network in all areas of Roman power, beautiful build public housing, as well as new cities are magnificent. Temples were erected and Augustus encourage obedience to the Roman religion. Arranged marriage regulations, and organize education and ways of caring for children.
Since the year 30 BC the Roman state in the country securely under Augustus. Natural resources provide great prosperity for the people. A side effect of all this, art and culture was evolving so rapidly that the reign of Augustus is the golden age of literature. The greatest Roman poet, Virgil, lived in this period, as well as the greatest authors including Horacc and Livy. While cultural Ovid causing displeasure of Augustus, was expelled from the Roman.
Augustus had no sons, while kemanakan and two grandchildren died before he himself turned a blind eye. That's why picking up his stepson Augustus, Tiberius, and set them to be his successor. However, the dynasty (which later rulers as well as unpopular as Caligula and Nero) will soon be dropped and withered, though peace and security in the country that its foundations laid by Augustus (the so-called Pax Romana) still can last about 200 years . In the extension of a safe and prosperous, it permeated with Roman culture in the conquered territories and built Augustus and other Roman leaders.
The Roman Empire is famous for its antiquity, and was in fact so. Roman is not only the culmination of an ancient culture but was also a major supplier of cultural ideas and results of civilized nations such as Egypt, Babylon, Jewish, Greek and the other to Western Europe.
It is interesting to compare with his uncle Augustus, Julius Caesar. Regardless of the kerupawanan August, intelligence, strength of character and military successes, he was not able to counter the inherent charisma of his predecessor. Julius Caesar had the power pukau his contemporaries larger than those in August and he is still famous until now. But the influence of history, Augustus still has benefits.
And also it is interesting to compare Augustus with Alexander the Great. Both began his career since a young age, though Augustus had to overcome obstacles with hard and bitter over the way to the top military capabilities are no less remarkable than Alexander the Great, but it is really impressive and conquest-conquest is more shocking. This fact is a factor that distinguishes between Augustus and Alexander the Great. Augustus to build a future full of rigor, and some of the long-term influence in the broader history of humanity.
Augustus could also be compared to Mao Tse Tung or George Washington. All three play a major role in history and almost berkemiripan. But measured by the length of the reign of Augustus, his political successes and the importance of Roman power in history, I believe Augustus worth placed on the list of higher order than the two other figures.
- Michael H. Hart, Seratus Tokoh yang Paling Berpengaruh dalam Sejarah, Jakarta: PT. Dunia Pustaka Terjemahan H. Mahbub Djunaidi, 1982
- See Indonesian Lenguage http://kolom-biografi.blogspot.com/2009/01/biografi-agustus-caesar.html
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