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Umayyad|dynasty|in|Andalusia


After the end of the Classical period of Islam, when Islam began to enter the kemunduraan, Europe rose from its backwardness. The resurrection is not only visible in the political field with the success of Europe defeated the kingdom - the kingdom of Islam from the rest of the world, but especially in the fields of science and technology that supported his political success. Progress - the progress of Europe is inseparable from the Islamic rule in Andalusia [1]

Nation of Islam Andalusia Europe, a lot of knowledge. In the Classical period, when Islam reached its golden ages, Andalusia is a center of Islamic civilization is very important, rivaling Baghdad in the East. When the Christian people of Europe learned a lot in college - college Islam there. Islam a "guru" for the people of Europe. Therefore, the presence of Isam in Andalusia attracted the attention of many historians. [2], however great the gait begutu islam in spain in Harun Nasution scene of history in his book "Islam in the review of various aspects of this period lay in the middle period of the phases of historical development Islam is: 1200 - 1800 AD, during the decline of I: 1250 - 1500 M as seen from his reign, Islam in Andalus was not very long when compared to Islam during the Abbasid dynasty in the East. [3]

But do not doubt that there is progress in Europe, particularly after the expiration of their darkness is due to contribution of Islam in Andalusia. To see the home that's how - the proposal of Islam in Andalusia, the development and existence of the Umayyad dynasty. Peradaannya and the factors of decline and destruction of Islam in Andalusia here speakers will review it further.

B. Origin - Proposed entry of Islam to Andalusia

Before the Muslims who controlled Andalusia region located around the Iberian peninsula and divides the continent of Europe with Africa is known by various names. Before the century - 5 M, is called the Iberian region (or Les Iberes), taken from the name of the Iberian nation (diwilaya the oldest population). When I was under the rule of the Romans, the region known as Asbania. In the century - 5 M, if the Nation Vandals ruled Andalusia from this region since this region is called Vandalusia that Muslims came to be called "Andalusia".

Since it was first developed in Andalusia until the end of the rule of Islam there, Islam has played a huge role. This period lasted for nearly eight centuries (711 - 1492 AD). At this early stage since become the rule of Islam, Andalusia ruled by saints who are appointed by the government in Damascus Ummayah Bani. At this period of political and social conditions of Andalusia still tinged disputes due to the complexity of ethnicity and class. Besides, it also arises from the interference remains of the enemies of Islam in Andalusia who resides in the region of the interior. This period ended with the arrival of Abdur Rahman Al-Dakhil to Andalusia. As mentioned earlier, Andalusia disusuki Muslims at the time of Caliph Al-Walid (705-715 AD), one of the Caliph of Bani Ummayah based in Damascus. Before the conquest of Andalusia, the Muslims had taken control of North Africa and make it as a province of the Umayyad dynasty. Full mastery of the African Uatar occurred at the time of Caliph Abdul Malik (685-705 AD). [4]

K. Ali in his book History of Islam (Tarikh Pramodren) peroide divide it to two periods of the emirate period and the period of oversight. In the period of the Umayyad emirate led a fast Andalusia who holds Amir (commander or governor) is not bound by the central government. Amir Abdul Rahman I. The first is Having managed to escape from the cruelty of Al-Saffah, Abdul Rahman took pengembaran to Palestine, Egypt and North Africa until he arrived at Cheuta. In this region he enlisted the help of the Berbers in preparing military forces. At that time Andalusia was hit by inter-ethnic hostility and Himyariyah Mudariyah. [5]

If we look back, before they menakukkan Andalusia, in the reign of Caliph Al-Walid before the Caliph Abdul Malik (685-705 AD), the Muslims had taken control of North Africa and make it one of the province of Ummayah dynasty, and the governors are Nu'man Bin Hasan Al Ghassani [6]. But in the reign of the caliph dynasty Ummayah Al-Walid, the governor of North Africa is being replaced to Moses Ibn Nushair. On Moses Ibn Nushair, they managed to memduduki Al-Jazair and Morocco and the former Barbarian.

According to history before Islam can master this area of ​​North Africa, in this area there are the forces of the Roman empire. This kingdom is always urge people to want to oppose the rule of Islam. However the idea that they can spend or Islamic rule in the Roman empire can be defeated by the forces of Islam, so that the North African region and this can be controlled entirely from the region where Islam takes over Andalusia. [7]

In the process of the conquest of Andalusia there are three heroes of Islam that can be said to be the most meritorious led forces units there. They are Tahrif Ibn Malik, Tariq Ibn Ziyad and Musa Ibn Nushair. Tharif can be called a pioneer and investigator. He crossed the strait which is between Morocco and the European continent with the forces of war, five hundred of them were horsemen, they boarded four ships provided by Julian. In the raid Tharif not have the means of resistance. He won and returned to North Africa to bring the spoils that are not few in number. Encouraged by the success Tharif and chaos that occurs in the body of the ruling royal Visighotoc in Andalusia at the time, as well as a great encouragement to gain the spoils of war, Musa Ibn Nushair in the year 711 AD sent troops Andalusia as many as 7000 people under the leadership of Tariq Ibn Ziad.

Tariq Ibn Ziad more widely known as the conqueror of Andalusia kerana forces larger and more tangible results. His force consisted of a large part of the barbarian tribes supported by Musa Ibn Nushair and some Arabs who sent the Caliph

Al-Walid's army crossed the straits under the leadership of Tariq Ibn Ziad. [8] A mountain of Tariq and his men first landed and mneyiapkan troops, known as Gibraltar (Jabal Tariq). With this mastered then opened the door of Regional widely to enter Andalusia so that the battle was Bakkah In areas which is where the king Roderick defeated.

Thus Tariq can menahlukan Cordova, Granada and Toledo. This victory provides a significant opportunity to conquer a wider kewilayah. For this reason Moses eventually helped Tariq Ibn Nushair down, finally Musa and Tariq Ibn Nushair join and succeeded in conquering the important areas in Spain such as Saragosa, Karmonan, Seville and Merida. [9]

Further territorial expansion during the reign of Caliph Umar Bin Abdul Aziz of 99 H or 717 M. Region who want to conquer Pyrenia and Southern France, but the conquest was a failure. Al-Sammah, led troops killed, and then handed over to Abdul Rahman, but they also experienced failures, and finally the Islamic forces retreat. But the war remains to be done. So the second wave that began the beginning of century - 8 of the Muslims are able to control the whole region like Andalusia region of Central France and parts of Italy, the end of Muslim rule in the area stronger. [10]

The victory - a victory that reached the Muslims seem so easy, it can be separated from the external and internal, that is:

External factors, while that which is meant by this external factor is a state located in the Andalusian country itself. During which the social, political and economic country in a sad state. Politically Andalusia region torn apart and divided into several small countries. Plus the flow of Gothic rulers bersikaf intolerant religious sects, namely the flow Monophysite authorities, especially against other faiths. While the population of Andalusia's largest religion is the religion of the Jews, they were forced to be baptized in the Christian religion. People's shared among the classes so that the situation covered by poverty, oppression, lack of equal rights.

Internal factors, while that which is the internal factor is a condition contained in the body of Islamic rulers, including the leaders of Islamic militants and the soldiers involved in the conquest of Andalusia region in particular. The leaders are powerful figures, army compact, united and confident. Equally important are the teachings of Islam which ditinjukkan the soldiers of Islam, namely tolerance, brotherhood contained in the person's cause Andalusian Muslims welcomed the presence of Islam there.

C. Development of Islam and the presence of Ummayah Dynasty in Andalusia

Long period through which the Muslims in Andalusia it can be divided into six periods according to Yatim Badry. Three such period ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, ie: [11]

First Period (711-755 AD)

On this rule, Andalusia was under the rulership of the trustee appointed by the Caliph Bani Ummayah based in Damascus. In this period of political stability the country has not achieved a perfect Andalusia, the disturbances still occur, whether it comes from within and from outside. Interference that comes from within, among others, a dispute between the ruling elite, mainly due to differences in ethnicity and class. In addition, there is a difference of views between the caliph in Damascus and the governor of North Africa, based in Kairawan. Each claiming that they are the rightful master the Andalusia region. Because it was twenty times a change of trustee (the Governor) Andalusia in a very short time. While the interference coming from outside the remains of the enemies of Islam in Andalusia is a mountain resident who never submit to the Islamic movement continues to strengthen themselves. After struggling more than 500 years, finally they were able to cast Islam in Andalusia earth, then in the Islamic period has not yet entered development activities in the field of civilization and culture. This period ended with the arrival of Abdl Rahman Al - Dakhil to Andalusia (138 H or 75).

Second Period (755-912 AD).

This period, Andalusia was ruled by an Amir (commander or governor) but not subject to the administrative center of Islam, who was held by the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad. Amir Abdur Rahman I first was given the title of Al-Dakhil. He is a descendant of Bani Ummayah. The rulers of Andalusia at this period is Abdl Al-Rahman Al-Aushat, Muhammad Ibn Abd Al-Rahman, Muhammad Ibn Munzir and Muhammad Ibn Abdullah. Andalusia at this period already well advanced in the political field and in the field of civilization, by establishing mosques and schools, Hisham known meritorious Hakam enforce Islamic law and is known as a reformer in the military field. While Rahman Al-Aushat Abdl known as the ruler who love science.

Third Period (912 - 1013 AD)

This period lasts from government Abdl Rahman III the title of "An-Nasir" until the advent of "the kings of the group" known as al-Muluk Thawaif. Andalusia at this period ruled by the ruler with the title of Caliph, his caliphate is beradasarkan use by the news that the caliph Al - Muqtadir fortune Bani Abbas in Baghdad died. According to this state the best time to use the title of caliph who had been for 150 years and used again beginning in 929 AD caliphate - great caliphs who ruled during this period there are three persons, namely: Abdl Al - Rahman Al - Nasir (912-916 AD), Hakam II (961-976 AD), and Hisham II (976-1009 AD).

In this period the Muslims reached the top of the progress and glory of the triumph of good fortune to compete in Baghdad. Abdl Al - Rahman Al - Nasser founded the University of Cordova. The library has a collection of hundreds of thousands of books. Hakam II is also a book collector and founder of the library. Hisham ascended the throne in the next eleven years nerupakan early embryo destruction Bani Ummyah caliph in Andalusia. And destroyed in 1009 AD. finally in the year 1013 AD, the Council of Ministers who ruled Cordova office abolished the caliphate, now Spain is divided to many small countries.

D. The development of Islamic civilization in the Umayyad period Daulah.

During his reign, the Umayyads had made much progress there. Many achievements they gained influence even brought to Europe, and then the world, to advance a more complex, among which have been built are:

Intellectual 1.Kemajuan

Andalusia Islamic society is a pluralistic society made up of communities of Arab-Arab (North and South), Al-Muwalladun (Andalusian people who converted to Islam), Barbarian (Muslims from North Africa) Al-Shaqallibah (population between konstantinipel and Bulgaria which became German prisoners and sold to the ruler of Islam to serve as mercenaries). Jewish Christians and Christian Arab culture which is still opposed to the presence of Islam. All of these community except the last, providing the intellectual stock of the formation of Andalus cultural environment that gave birth to the rise of scientific, literary and physical development in Andalusia. Intellectual progress can be seen in various fields such as:

a.Filsafat

Interest in philosophy and science were developed in the 9th century during the reign of the Umayyad ruler of the 5th, that is Muhammad Ibn Al-Rahman Abdl (832-886 AD). [12]

The first major figure in the history of Arab-Andalusian philosophy was Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Al-Sayigh, better known by Ibn Bajjah. The second main character is Abu Bakr Ibn Thufail, he wrote many problems of medicine, astronomy and philosophy. Philosophical works of the most famous is Ibn Yaqzhan Hay. The latter part of the 12th century AD saw the rise of a follower of Aristotle, known as the thoughts he was the commentator Ibn Rushd (Averroes) lived between 1126-1198 AD, that's why it is nicknamed as Aristotle II, the effect is very prominent supporter of Christian philosophy and skholastik thoughts degree in medieval Europe. [13]

b.Sains

In this emerging field of figures such as Abbas Ibn Farnas scientist famous in chemistry and astronomy who first discovered the manufacture of glass from stone, Ibrahim bin Naqqash in the field of astronomy can determine when the eclipse of the sun and at length, he also managed to create a modern binoculars can determine the distance between the solar system and stars. Ahmad ibn Abbas from Cordova experts in the field of medicine and many more figures mentioned but great services in development and enlightenment of science at that time.

c.Fikih

In the field of jurisprudence, Islamic Andalusia is known as the Maliki school of followers. Who introduced this school of Ibn Ziad Abd al-Rahman. Subsequent development is determined by the Qadi Yahya Ibn during Hisham Ibn abd. Al-Rahman. Fikihnya other experts include Abu Bakr Ibn Al-Quthiyah, Munzir Ibn Sa'id Al-Baluti, and the famous Ibn Hazm.

d.Musik and the Arts

Al-Hasan Ibn characters dubbed Zaryab Nafi, who is always showing Zaryab renowned skill as a composer.

e.Bahasa and Literature

Literary works are emerging, such as Al-Al-Farid Iqad Ibn Abd Rabbih, Al-Dzakhirah fi Mahasin Ahl Al-Jazirah by Ibn Bassam, Kitab al-Qalaid the work of Al-Fath Ibn Khaqan and many others.

2) The splendor of Physical Development

Aspects of physical development that gets the attention of Muslims is very much like the trade. The streets and markets are built as beautiful as possible. In addition also the agricultural sector are also not left behind with the introduction of irrigation system, then introduce rice farming, citrus, orchards and gardens.

D. Deterioration and destruction

There are several causes of the decline and destruction of the State of Umayyad in Andalusia, which will ruin it is the beginning of the destruction of Islam in Andalusia. Among the causes of the decline and destruction of these are:

A. Islamic conflict with the Christian

The rulers did not spread Islam in kaffah, so that the Christians are still Christians in Andalusia, they are given the freedom to live the teachings of their religion, which in turn hold back an attack against Islam. Besides, people also feel the presence of Christian Andalusia Arabs Islam strengthens their sense of nationhood, the attack on Islam has never stopped since the beginning of Islamic rule in Andalusia. [14]

There 2.Tidak Unifying Ideology

In other places the converts are treated equal as a person, in Andalusia, as the politics that run the Umayyads in Damascus, the Arabs have never accepted the indigenous people. At least until the 10th century AD, they still give the term 'ibad and Muwalladun to the non-Arab ethnic groups

Economic 3.Kesulitan

Andalusian Islam Islamic world as remote from the others, he always fought alone, without assistance except from North Africa. Thus there is no alternative force capable of stemming the rise of Christianity there.

4. There are no adequate leader figure.

At the time of its destruction, coordinated by the Umayyad Hisham dimpimpin as young as next year. Because of his age he is still, of course he could not bring stability to the country.

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References and Footnote
Bibliography

Ali, K., History of Islam (Tarikh Pre-Modern). London: King Grafindo Persada, 2000.



Brocklemann, Carl History of the Islamic Peoples. London: Rotledge & Kegan Paul, 1989.



Fakhri, Majdid, History of Islamic Philosophy. Jakarta: Library Jaya, 1996.



Hasan, Hasan Ibrahim, al-Tarikh al-Islam wa al-Dini citation wa al-Thaqafi astral conjunction wa al-'. Cairo: al-Nahdhah Maktabah, t.th.



Hitti, Philip K., History of the Arabs. London: Macmilin Press, 1970.



Ismail, Faisal, the Islamic Cultural Paradigm. London: Titian Divine Press, 1996.



Nasution, Aaron, Review of Islam in its various aspects, Volume I. Jakarta: UI Press, 2001.



Syalabi, A., History and Islamic Culture, vol 2. New York: Al-Husna Books, 1983.



Spuler, Bertold, The Muslim Word, History Survey. Leiden: tp, 1960.



Yatim, Badri, History of Islamic Civilization. London: King Grafindo Persada, 1993.






[1] Andalusia became a province of the Khilafat. Arabic name given to the country was Al-Andalus. Etymologically the word has something to do with the name of the Vandals, who conquered the country before the arrival of the Arabs, Philip K.Kahitti, History of the Arabs (London: Macmilin Press, 1970), hal.450.

[2] Badri Yatim, History of Islamic Civilization (New York: King Grafindo Persada, 1993), p. 87

[3] Harun Nasution, Review of Islam in its various aspects, vol I (New York: UI-Press, 2001), hal.76.




[4]) Ibid, hal.88

[5] K.Ali, History of Islam (Tarikh Pre-Modern) (London: King Grafindo Persada, 2000), p. 301-302.

[6] A. Syalabi, Islamic History and Culture, vol 2 (London: Al-Husna Books, 1983), hal.153.

[7] Ibid, hal.154 - 155

[8]) Badri Yatim, History of Civilization, p.89. see also Carl Brocklemann, History of the Islamic peoples (London: Kegan Paul & Rotledge, 1989), hal.83

[9] Ibid, p. 14

[10] Bertold Spuler, The Muslim Word, History Survey (Leiden: tp, 1960), hal.100

[11] Badri Yatim, History of Civilization, p. 92-93.

[12] Majdid Fakhri, History of Islamic Philosophy (New York: Jaya Press, 1996), p. 357.

[13] Faisal Ismail, the Islamic Cultural Paradigm (London: Titian Divine Press, 1996), p. 154

[14]) Hasan Ibrahim Hasan al-Tarikh al-Islam wa al-Dini citation wa al-Thaqafi astral conjunction wa al-'(Cairo: al-Nahdhah Maktabah, t.th.), p. 502.



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