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Umayyad II in Andalusia


In history, the Muslims had reached the peak of progress and prosperity. Umayyad and Abbasid Daula had an important role in the realization of this triumph. State of the Umayyad government had grown and expanded to various areas in Islam which is to Andalusia which has made many contributions recorded in the Islamic civilization. When Islam victorious in Andalusia many of the Europeans who studied in Islamic universities There. Being Muslim "Guru" for the people of Europe. Therefore, the Islamic presence in Andalusia attract much attention of historians. Namunpun thus the development of Islam in Andalusia is not very long compared to Islam in the East during the Abbasid.

During the seven centuries of Islam in Andalusia has reached its golden ages that can be used as a center of Islamic civilization, which began the Caliph al-Walid (705-715 AD) In ​​this paper, the author tries to describe in general the development of Islam in Andalusia (Spain), with systematic discussion include: Introduction, establishment and jatuhya Andalusia into the Umayyads, Islam and development presence in the Umayyad State of Andalusia, the progress of Islam in Andalusia perdaban and destruction, and end with a concluding note.

Formation and fall into the power of Andalusia Ummaids

According to historical records, before Islam can master the North African region, in this area there are the forces of the Roman empire. This kingdom is always urge people to want to oppose the rule of Islam. But they thought it could be spent or in other words denagan Roman empire can be defeated by the power of Islam, so that the North African region can be controlled fully and Islam is the master of Andalusia.1

Before the conquest of Andalusia, the Muslims had taken control of North Africa and made as one of the province of the Umayyad Daulah. Full mastery over North Africa took place at the time of Caliph Abdul Malik (685-705 AD) .2

In the context of history, before they conquered Andalusia, in the reign of Caliph al-Walid before the Caliph Abdul Malik (685-705 AD), the Muslims had taken control of North Africa and made a province of the Umayyad Daulah, and the governor is Hasan bin Ghassani.2 Nu'man al-Daulah, but in the reign of the Umayyad caliph at the time of al-Walid, the governor of North Africa was replaced by Moses ibn Nushair. At the time of Moses ibn Nushair, they succeeded in occupying al-Jazair and Morocco and the former Barbarian.

In the process of the conquest of Andalusia there are three heroes of Islam that can be said to be the most meritorious led forces units there. They are Tahrif ibn Malik, Tariq ibn Ziyad and Musa Ibn Nushair. Tharif can be called a pioneer and investigator. He crossed the strait that lies between Morocco and the European continent with the forces of war, five hundred of them were horsemen, they boarded four ships provided by Julian. In the raid Tharif not have the means of resistance. He won and returned to North Africa to bring the spoils no small amount. Encouraged by the success Tharif and chaos that occurs in the body of the ruling royal Visighotic in Andalusia at the time, as well as a great encouragement to gain the spoils of war, Musa ibn Nushair in the year 711 AD, sent troops to Andalusia as many as 7000 people under the leadership of Tariq ibn Ziad.

Tariq Ibn Ziad more widely known as the conqueror of Andalusia when they were larger and more tangible results. His force consisted of barbarian tribes sebahagian supported by Musa ibn Nushair and some Arabs who sent the Caliph al-Walid. These troops then crossed the straits under Tariq ibn Ziad.3 A mountain of Tariq and his men first landed and set up his army, known as Giblaltar (Jabal Tariq). With this area under their control then opens the door widely to enter Andalusia. So the battle area, which is where King Balk Roderick.4

Tariq thus can invade Cardova, Granada, and Toledo. This victory provides a significant opportunity to conquer a wider kewilayah. On the basis of this is the end of Moses ibn Tariq Nushair down help. Finally Nushair and Tariq ibn Musa joined and successfully conquered the area important in Andalusia, as Saragosa, Novare, Karmona, Seville, and Merida.

The expansion is then performed on the territory of government Umar bin Abdu Aziz H 99 years or 717 M. Region who want to conquer the Pyrenees and southern France. But the conquest was a failure. Al-Samah, the leader of the troops were killed, and then handed over to Abd Rahman, but he also experienced failures, and finally the Islamic forces retreat. Namunpun war still continues to do so. Sehinnga second wave that began the eighth century the Muslims are able to control the entire region such as Andalusia region of southern France and parts of Italy, and finally the rule of Islam in this region is getting stronger.

The victories achieved Muslims seem so easy, it can not be separated from the external and internal factors, namely:

a. Internal factors, while internal factors are the conditions contained in the body of Islamic domination, including the leaders of Islamic fighters and soldiers involved in the conquest of Andalusia region in particular. The leaders are powerful figures, army compact, united and confident. Equally important are the teachings of Islam which indicated the soldiers of Islam, namely tolerance, brotherhood contained in the personal self of the Muslims that led to the population welcomed the Andalusian Islamic presence there.

b. External factors, while that which is meant by this external factor is a state located in the Andalusian country itself. During which the social, political and economic country in a sad state. Politically Andalusia region torn apart and share the country into several small. Gothic plus ruler being intolerant of religious currents that flow Monofisik authorities, especially against other faiths. Semantara Andalusia's population are followers of Judaism, they were forced diadaptis according to the Christian religion. People's shared among the classes so that the situation covered by poverty, oppression, and lack of equality hak.5


Development of the State of Islam and the presence of Umayyad in Andalusia

Long period through which the people in Andalusia it can be divided into 6 by Badri Orphans period are:

v First Period (711-755 AD)

On this government, Andalusia was under the Umayyad government, based in Damascus. At this period of stability the country has not reached perfect Andalusia, the disturbances still occur, whether it comes from within and from outside. Ganggaun that comes from within, among others, a dispute between the ruling elite, mainly due to differences due to ethnic groups. In addition, there is a difference of views between the caliph in Damascus and the governor of North Africa, based in Kairawan. Each claiming that they are the rightful master the Andalusia region in a very short time. While the interference coming from outside, namely from the remnants of Andalusian Islam's enemies who live in the mountains that never submit to Islam Islamic government to strengthen the movement itself. After struggling more than 500 years, finally they were able to expel Islam from Andalusia earth, then in this period has not yet entered the Islamic civilization and development activities in the field of culture. This period ended with the arrival of Abdurrahman ad-Dakhil to Andalusia 138 H/755 AD

v The second period (755-912 AD)

This period, Andalusia obtained by Amir (commander or governor) but not subject to pemarintahan Islam, which at that time, held Abbasid caliph in Baghdad. Amir Abdurrahman I first was given the title of the ad-Dakhil (which entered into Andalusia). He is a descendant of the Umayyad dynasty. The rulers of Andalusia at this period is Abdul Rahman ad-Dakhil, Hisham I, Hakam II, Abdul Rahman al-Ausat, Muhammad Ibn Abdul Rahman, Munzir ibn Muhammad, and Muhammad ibn Abdullah. Andalusia at this period already well advanced in the field of politics and civilization, by establishing mosques and schools, Hisham known meritorious enforce Islamic law, and Hakam known as a reformer in the military field, while Abdul Rahman Al-Ausat known as the ruler who love science.

v The third period (912-1013 AD)

This period lasted from the reign of Abdurrahman III is titled "An-nasir" until the advent of the kings of the group known as al-Muluk Thawaif. Andalusia at this period ruled by the ruler with the title of caliph, the caliphate was based on the use of the news that the caliph al-daulah Muqtadir Bani Abbas in Baghdad died. According to state the most appropriate time to wear the title of caliph had lost over 150 years of diving and used again beginning in 929 AD Great caliphs who ruled during this period consisted of three people, namely: Abd an-Nasir (912-961 AD) Hakam II (961-976 AD), and Hisham II (976-1009 AD).

In this period the Muslim Andalusia reached the peak of progress and glory of the triumph Daula rival Abbasids in Baghdad. Abd an-Nasir founded the University of Cardova. The library has a collection of hundreds of thousands of books. Hakam II was also a collector of books and founder of the library. Hisham ascended the throne in the next 11 years which is an early forerunner of the destruction of the Umayyad caliphs in Andalusia. And the destruction of the Year 1009 AD Finally in 1013 AD, the Council of Ministers who ruled Cardova office abolished the caliphate, then Andalusia is divided to many small countries.


v The fourth period (1013-1086 AD)

At this period, Andalusia split into more than thirty small state under the rule of kings or al-Mulukut class-Thawaif, based in a city like Seville, Cardova, Toledo, and so forth. The biggest is the Abbasids in Seville. During this period Muslims again entered a period of internal strife. Ironically if sausara war, are among the warring parties were asked for help from the Christian kings. See the weakness and confusion that afflicts the Islamic political circumstances, for the first time Christians in this period began to take the initiative to attack. Although the unstable political life, but the intellectual life continued to expand in this period.

v The fifth Period (1086-1248 AD)

In this period of Islamic Andalusia though still divided in several countries, but there is one dominant power, the power DaulahMurabbitun (1086-1235 AD). DaulahMurabbitun was first a religious movement founded by Yusuf ibn in North Africa. He came to Andalusia because it was invited by the Islamic rulers in Andalusia. But the strength Murabbitun ended and replaced by DaulahMuwahhidun founded by Muhammad ibn Tumart. Of this dynasty, important cities in Andalusia can be retaken as: Cardova, Granada, Almeria, but Christians still continue to hold the attack that eventually Almohads defeated and returned to the ruling Christian year 1238 AD, they conquered Cardova and Seville in 1248. Finally, only Granada is still dominated by Islam.

v Sixth Period

This period of Islamic rule in Granada just under Bani Ahmar. In the reign of the Islamic civilization is progressing again. But only a master of political administration is a small area. Berkhir even this force because of a dispute the court of seizing power.

Progress of Islamic civilization in Andalusia

In the over seven centuries of Muslim rule in Andalusia, Muslims have achieved glory there. Many achievements they gained influence even brought to Europe and other world, between the progress achieved by the Umayyad dynasty in Andalusia as impressive achievements are:
Intellectual progress

Spanish society Islam is a pluralistic society made up of Arab communities (north and south), al-Muwalladun (Spaniards who converted to Islam), Barbarian (Muslims from North Africa), al-Shaqallibah (pendudduk between Constantinople and Bulgaria which became German prisoners and sold to the Islamic rulers to serve as mercenaries), a cultured Jewish Christians who masi challenging Arab Islamic presence. All of these communists, except that terkhir, giving shares to the formation of an intellectual environment that gave birth to the rise of Andalusian culture of scientific, literary and physical development in Andalusia.5 intellectual advances can be seen in various fields, among others:

Philosophy

Interest in philosophy and science were developed in the 9th century during the reign of the Umayyad ruler of the fifth, namely: Abdurrahman ibn Muhammad (832-886 AD).

Major figure in Arab-Andalusian philosophy was Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn al-Sayigh better known as Ibn Bajjah. The second main character is Abu Bakr ibn Thufail, he wrote many problems of medicine, astronomy and philosophy. Most famous works of philosophy is the Hay ibn Yaqzhan.

The latter part of the 12th century AD, the emergence of a follower of Aristotle, known as a commentator mind-his thoughts, he is Ibn Rushd (Averroes), lived between 1126 to 1198) M, that's why he is dubbed as Aristotle II, the effect is very prominent on supporters Christian scholastic philosophy and mind-mind scholars in medieval Europe.

Field of Science

In this emerging field of figures such as Abbas ibn Frnas scientists renowned in science and astronomy kmia the first discovered of making glass from stones, ibrahim ibn Naqqas in the field of astronomy can determine when and how long a solar eclipse, he also managed to create a modern binoculars that can be determine the distance between the solar system and stars. Ahmad ibn Abbas of cardova experts in the field of medicine and many more characters who was not yet very large

services in the development of science and enlightenment during itu.6


The field of Fiqh

In the field of fiqh, known Andalusian Maliki school of followers. School is that introduces Abdurrahman ibn Zaid. Subsequent development is determined by the Qadi Yahya ibn during Abdurrahman ibn Hisham. Other Fiqh scholars include Abu Bkar ibn al-Quthiyah, Munzir ibn Sa'id al-Baluthi, ibn Hazm and famous.

The field of Music and Art

Characters are al-Hasan ibn Nafi, dubbed Zaryab. Zaryab is always showing his skill, which is known as a modifier track.

Field of Languages ​​and Literature

Literary works are emerging, such as, al-'Iqad ibn al-Farid Abd Rabbih work, az-fi Zakhirah Mahasin ahl al-Bassam peninsula by, the book of al-Qalaid the work of ibn al-Fah Khaqan, and many others that is not here, of course, also has a great work and take effect.

Physical construction of grandeur

Aspects of physical development that gets the attention of the Muslims are very much like the trade. The streets and markets are built as beautiful as possible. Besides agriculture are also not left behind with the introduction of irrigation system, then introduce rice, oranges, orchard and garden-taman.7

Destruction of the State of the Umayyads in Andalusia

Although Islam in the region of Andalusia has experienced the glory that survived for so long, and Andalusia important position in the annals of the development of science and civilization is growing rapidly, but at the end of this daulah also experienced a marked decline in its demise. Many factors cause this daullah destroyed, among others:


Komplik Islam with military

The Muslim rulers did not perform perfectly Islamization, they are given the freedom to live the teachings of their religion, which in turn hold back an attack against Islam, the authorities are satisfied with simply collecting tribute from Christian kingdoms, and let them maintain law and adapt, things like This causes the lives of Muslims have never stopped diAndalusia of conflict between Christians so that in the 11th century AD, Christians make progress rapidly while the Muslims are experiencing kemunduran.8


The absence of unifying ideology

Plitik system run by the Umayyads in Damascus has consistently grown in Andalusia, the Arabs have never accepted the indigenous ethnic groups as a result of non-Muslims often undermine and destroy peace, it brings a big impact on the social economy of the country, which shows ideologo absence that can give meaning unity. Beside the lack of figure that makes the personification of ideology.

Economic Difficulties

Development and progress is felt to make the rulers are always busy building cities and developing science very seriously so that the neglect of economic sectors, this has resulted in the emergence of economic hardship that is very burdensome to the influence of political and military conditions.


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References and Footnote
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